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42 Cards in this Set

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indochinese union
part of the french colonial empire. made up of tonkin, annam, cochin china, laos and cambodia. capital was hanoi. ruled by one governor general that was appointed by france.
mission civalcistrice
the french civilizing mission to make vietnamese people into 'french people with color'. considered it the 'white mans burden' to turn vietnam into another western civilization. never considered the desires of the vietnamese people themselves.
dependency
french created a dependency on western ideals and economy with the creation of the rubber factories that destroyed many of the rice fields. also made the vietnamese pay taxes which required them to grow crops for profit instead of just growing subistence crops.
reform generation
born in the 1860s and 70s. based on confusian values, but knew that confusian values would lead to extinction of nation. captivated by social darwinism. wanted to fuse tradition with future.
phan chu trinh
knew success had to be gradual. assumed that they were already too far behind the west to catch up. still feared by french as nationalist and was therefore imprisoned.
vietnamese nationalist party
modeled on sun yat sen's nationalist china policy. very active in tonkin and annam.
vietminh
league for vietnamese independence. wanted to fuse nationalism with communism. included landowners and peasants.
8th plenum
in the winter of 1940, ho chi minh sets up base in a large cave, where the first part of the vietminh is formed. wanted to fuse nationalism with communism.
sun yat sen
inspiration for the vietnamese nationalist party. overthrew the chiing dynasty.
phan boi chau
believed in vietnamese constitutionalist model. not afraid to use violence against french. wanted a vietnamese monarchy and to break away from french. was ultimately imprisoned in 1914 where his prison writings were very demeaning to his own efforts. felt he embarrassed himself.
constitutionalist party
largely in cochin china. sought to attain a constitution and therefore a broadening of freedoms within the french union.
mercantilism
take over a country and use its recources, etc for your own personal gain.
nguyen ai quoc
one of ho chi minh's pseudonyms, of which he had at least 50. this was part of his image management, of which he was very good at, which relegated blame for failures to others.
cominterm
created by lenin to create world revolution in 1919. ho chi minh was an agent of this group.
ngo dinh diem
first president of the republic of vietnam. nationalistic, catholic and anti communist. alienated from people. main us ally. blatantly rigged election polls, which furthereded him from people.
lenin
one of ho's inspirations. message of anti imperialism. created the cominterm.
indochinese communist party
what was once the vietnamese communist party. formed by ho chi minh. believed that france had reduced them to wretchedness.
vo nguyen giap
ho's military tactician and leader of the vietminh.
august revolution
from march of 45 to august 45, japanese were in control of vietnamese by themselves. after hiroshima and nagasaki, the vietnamese held a quick revolution to overthrow the japanese. after revolution, ho chi minh declares vietnamese independence in front of a large crowd in hanoi.
trusteeship
idea of FDR that the UN would supervise the vietnamese until they were able to be independently a free running democracy.
charles de gualle
proposed that the removal of the economic success of vietnam would push french into communism.
doc lap
ho's solution to the big question. french interpreted as freedom. ho really wanted independence. this was when negotiations flounder.
twin shocks
mao's communists defeat chiangs nationalists. soviet union detonates an atomic bomb. cold war is never the same after this. cold war becomes more of a military struggle after this.
1950 US decision/dean acheson
truman's secretary of state. cold warrior. believed that struggle against vietnam was really againts soviets. US begins funding more and more of the vietnamese effort.
henri navarre
wants to trap vietminh at dien bien phu. believes he can lure in vietminh and then take them out when he is protected by hills. really becomes a huge french military failure. appeals to US for aide.
domino theory
if vietnam falls to communism, so will the rest of asia and indochina. the disintegration of democracy and the implementation of communism.
pierre mendes france
after dien bien phu, negotiated an armistrice with ho chi minh. supported a total withdrawal from vietnam.
yalta
republicans said that FDR gave away eastern europe to soviets at yalta conference. FDR agrees that trusteeship will only occur when colonial powers in place would allow.
jean sainteny
french diplomat who met with ho chi minh for negotiations in 1946. didn't want war. both men were moderates.
franco vietminh accords
in 1946, - French would recognize Vietnam as free state in a broader Indochina Federation that would be part of France. gave vietnam greater control than ever, but also vietnamese had to accept 25,000 french troops.
agricultural reform tribunals
(1955 and 56)- wants to find 5% of landowning population to get rid of them
• Leads to great atrocities across the north
• Many peasants use this to frame their enemies
 Similar to red scare in US
 “could only find two landlords in village, ordered to go back and find 6 more”
o Ho Chi Minh realizes that he has gone too far in 56
• Those who have been wrongly classified as landlords, they will be reintegrated into Vietnamese society and forgiven
• Evidence of Ho Chi Minh the compassionate leader
Kruschev
some argue that ho chi minh's compassion was from kruschev's example.
agrovilles
forerunner to strategic hamlet program of US
 Idea was designed to isolate rural populations from the communists
 Wanted to move them to new lands
 Extremely unpopular
 Communists easily exploited grievances and were still able to slip into secure areas
long an province
Diem antagonizes peasants by making them pay for land that was previously given to them by the Vietminh. Also reverses some land redistribution.
law 10/59
anyone charged with crime of acts against security of state would be arrested, tried and executed within three days. No appeal process and basically allows for rounding up of Vietminh and sympathizers and their murder
 Diem’s popularity suffers even further
 Opposition grows through 50s and 60s
 American assistance was imperative to Diem
harold mcmillan
Despite considerable pressure on him from US President Lyndon Johnson for at least a token involvement of British military units in the Vietnam War, Wilson consistently avoided such a commitment of British forces. His government offered some rhetorical support for the US position (most prominently in the defense offered by then-Foreign Secretary Michael Stewart in a much-publicized "teach in" or debate on Vietnam), and on at least one occasion made an unsuccessful effort to intermediate in the conflict. On 28 June 1966 Wilson 'dissociated' his Government from Johnson's bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong. From a contemporary viewpoint, some commentators have given Wilson's independent line on Vietnam new significance in light of Britain's participation in the Iraq War (2003) with the USA Government.
Charles de Gualle
‘learn from our experience and our mistakes’
o continuously, from even before LBJ, de Gaulle calls for a negotiation with S.Vietnam
o however, de Gaulle was content to see the US be embarrassed
• failed to spell out specific and negotiated settlement
rolling thunder
o Conceived of as a gradualist bombing campaign
• Psychological war
• Suggest to enemy that it could get much worse if they did not submit to enemy
• Also had intent of not provoking China
• Lasted for three years
• This pretty much Americanizes the war
• Continues to be at least somewhat gradual
• Pay attention to johns Hopkins speech in Logevall
danang
It came to be considered one of Indochina's five major cities. During the Vietnam War the city was home to a major American air base. The population has once been increased to over 1 million habitants, mostly refugees.
william westmoreland
Westmoreland (in charge of US combat forces in ‘nam) requested an additional 40,000 batallions, which would have been a huge step forward in war, but the war had already started
gulf of tonkin
based on false evidence of 2nd attack
o More of a pretext than evidence of war
o Johnson was able to get congressional approval for ‘whatever he wanted to do’
• Does not start in 64 immediately
• Strikes that happened in early march, were more of an isolated incident
pleiku
t was strategically important during the Vietnam War because of the presence of military airbases. It is inhabited primarily by the Bahnar and Jarai ethnic groups, sometimes known as the Montagnards or Degar.