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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a signalment?
Age, breed, gender that predisposes an animal to its specific medical condition
List the systems of the body
integument, respiratory,cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, genitourinary,neurologic,general parameters, special senses
List the 3 body types
ECTOMORPH - lean body mass, can see ribs
MESOMORPH-muscular, cannot feel ribs with gentle pressure
ENDOMORPH-overweight, cannot feel ribs
WHat is the instrument used to see the tympanic membrane?
Otoscope
Which lymph nodes should you be able to palpate on physical exam?
Submandilar - in neck
popliteal-caudal to stifle
prescapular-located cranial and dorsal to shoulder joint
What heart valves are heard on the right?
Tricuspid
What heart valves are heard on the left?
Pulmonic, mitral, aortic
What are two examples of neurologic exams?
Patellar reflex-tapping on patellar tendon
Wheel barrowing - holding animal's rear legs and seeing if animal will move forward
Describe the proper procedure for palpating the abdomen
Use 2 handed technique for large animal, 1 hand for small. Begin dorsal to ventral and feel as the abdominal structures slip through hands. Note any abnormalities in chart.
What factors would you look at to evaluate dehydration?
Skin turgor
gingival color and moistness
CRT
position of globe in orbit
Optimizing your physical exam
Have pet under control
Chief complaint
Signalment
Get complete and accurate history -note any abnormal behaviors
ask 1-2 questions about each system
Chief complaint
reason for the appointment
General parameters
TPR
document with stickers, chart
begin nose to tail
Causes of change in weight
hypothyroidism
diabetes
over-eating
Abnormalities to look for in the eyes
entropion
ectropion
3rd eyelid
cherry eye
Glaucoma
Increase in intra-ocular pressure
Miosis
constricting of pupil
Mydriasis
dilating of pupil
uveitis
inflammation of the iris and ciliate body
cataracts
opacity of the lenses
tapetum
portion of the eye that reflects light
Schirmer Tear Test
test for tear production, normall 10-24mm/min
Fluoroscein Dye
test for ulceration of the cornea. If present, it will stain green
Epistaxis
bloody nose
Staining of deciduous teeth
Caused by tetracycline during development of teeth
Periodontitis
inflammation of structures surrounding the teeth
Signs of inflammation
anorexia
pawing at the mouth
halitosis
Tongue
always check under the tongue for foreign bodies
Tumors in the mouth
sqaumous cell carcinoma
melanoma
fibrosarcoma
Aural hematoma
collection of blood or pus in the pinna
Exuadates of the ear
dry, dark flaky -earmites
light to yellowish pasty - yeast infection
Tynpanic Membrane
seen through otoscope
seperates external ear form middle ear
"fish scale"
Respiratory sounds in dogs
heard during inspiration and expiration
Respiratory sounds in cats
heard only during inspiration
Common skin problems
FAD-flea allergy dermatits
Seborrhea-crusty scales, oily skin
alopacia-hair loss
pruritis-itching
pustules
Causes of dermatitis
fleas
sarcoptic mange -zoonotic!
demodex
hormonal changes
allergies
heredity
infections
Skin scrape
1.Place drop of mineral oil onto slide
2.Begin scrape by holding skin bt thumb and index fingers
3.Hold blade perpindicular
4.Depth depends upon what you are looking for
5> All material is placed onto slide
6. Add cover slip and look under 10x obj.
Ascites
an increase in intra-abdominal fluid
Palpate the abdominal organs
bladder
spleen
kidney
lrg intestine
sm intestine
stomach
liver
mesenteric lymph nodes
Anal Sacs
located at 4 and 8 o'clock on the rectum
Musculoskeletal Exam
-observe pt. walking into room
-look for symetry in muscle tone
note any pain on jint motion or crepitus
-palpate dorsal spine of each vertebrae noting pain
Bladder
should feel fluid filled or fluctuant
abnormalities-stones, tunors, excessive firmness due to infection
Uterus
cannot be palpated in normal female
-only in pregnancy, pyo and neoplasia
Cervix
Can be plapated during pregnancy and certain times during estrus
Cryptorchid
no testicles in scrotum
monorchid
one testicle in scrotum
Mammary glands
note any lumos and location of them
check for pain and swelling
presence of milk
mammary tumors can be avoided by having your pet spayed