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81 Cards in this Set

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controls the complex activities of the body
endocrine and central nervous system (CNS)
acts directly and instantaneously
central nervous system
subtle, discharging its secretions slowly into the circulatory system and influencing target organs.
endocrine system
made up of ductless glands of internal secretion, their secretions depend on the capillaries and, to a certain extent, the lymph vessels, for this function.
endocrines
chemical substance secreted by endocrine gland.
Hormone
master gland attached to base of brain that exercises control over other endocrine glands, also called the “orchestra leader” and “master gland”
Pituitary gland or hypohysis
the saddle-shaped depression in which the pituitary gland lies.
Sella turcica
membrane covering the brain.
Dura mater
an extension of the dura mater that helps protect the pituitary gland.
Pituitary Diaphragm
a stem-like portion of the pituitary gland, that extends through the diaphragm and provides a connection to the hypothalamus portion of the brain.
Pituitary stalk
funnel-shaped passage with neural tracts from hypothalamus of brain to pituitary gland.
Infundibulum
made up of two separate glands with different embryonic origins and functions.
pituitary gland
anterior lobe of pituitary gland
Adenohypophysis
posterior lobe of pituitary gland.
Neurohypophysis
growth hormone (GH) secreted by acidophils and anterior pituitary gland.
Somatotropin
body
Somato
nourishment
Tropin
thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH) of anterior pituitary gland that promotes growth and development of thyroid gland and stimulates it to secrete thyrocine and triiodothyronine, the two major hormones of thyroid gland.
Thyrotropic
pituitary hormones that influence gonads
Gonadotropic hormone
(FSH) anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates growth of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen in female and development of seminiferous tubules and sperm cells in male.
Follicle-stimulating hormones
(LH) anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates formation of corpus luteum and progesterone in female and development and secretion of testosterone in interstitial cells of testes
Luteinizing hormone
(ICSH) stimulates development and secretion of testosterone in the interstitial cells of the testes of the male.
Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
pituitary hormone responsible for mammary gland development and milk production in pregnancy
Prolactin or Lactogenic
hormone of anterior pituitary gland that promotes growth and development of adrenal cortex and stimulates cortex to secrete glucocoricoids.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or adrenocorticotropin
anterior pituitary hormones, stimulate formation of melanin pigment in the skin and hair.
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
hormone secreted by posterior pituitary that stimulates water reabsorption by distal and collection kidney tubules (also called vasopressin)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
hormone of posterior lobe of pituitary gland that stimulates uterine contractions during parturition
Oxytocin
paired bilateral glands, located near the trachea below the larynx.
Thyroid glands
gelatinous substance in follicles of thyroid gland that contains hormone secreted by thyroid.
Colloid
main function of the thyroid
secretion of two iodine-laden hormones.
essential element of thyroid hormone
Iodine
one of the two iodine-laden hormones making up thyroid hormone whose main function is to regulate metabolic rate and processes of growth and tissue differentiation
Thyroxine (T4)
second of two hormones that make up thyroid hormone containing less iodine than thyroxine but having the same function.
Triodothyronine (T3)
iodine in thyroid hormone combines with protein in the blood.
Protein-bond iodine (PBI)
secreted by the thyroid gland which produces a decrease in the concentration of calcium in the blood helping maintain the balance of calcium necessary for a variety of bodily processes.
Calcitonin
means along side or next to.
There are usually two on each side, in close proximity to the thyroid gland and embedded in its posterior surface
Para
parathyroid gland secretion that regulates calcium and phosphorus content of blood and bone.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
glands located near the kidney (also called suprarenal glands.)
Composed of two distinct parts
Adrenal gland
outer portion of adrenal gland that secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and some estrogen.
Cortex
inter portion of adrenal glands producing epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Medulla
Three zones of cortex
Zona glomeculosa
Zona fasciculata
Zona reticularis
adrenocortical steroid that affects sodium and potassium balance
Mineralocorticoid
group of adrenocortical steroids that are concerned with protein fat, and carbohydrate metabolism and aid body in resisting stress.
Glucocorticoids
secreted in small amounts by the inner zone of the adrenal cortex
Sex hormone
adrenal medulla hormone, which stimulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands, to assist body in meeting stress.
Adrenaline or epinephrine
hormone secreted by adrenal medulla
Norepinephrine or noradrenaline
small gland located near base of brain.
Pineal body
part of the gastrointestinal system, secretes insulin into the circulation.
Pancreas
specialized pancreatic cells secreting insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) into circulation.
Islands (islets) of langerhans
increases blood glucose levels
Glucagon
plays a role in producing glycagon and gastric juices and has been identified as having additional functions in digestion and metabolism.
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP)
disease caused by pituitary hypersecretion of growth hormone after completion of bone development, characterized by enlargement of bones of the front and rear feet and face.
Acromegaly
life-threatening condition of adrenal insufficiency characterized by severe weakness, low blood pressure, anorexia, digestive disturbance, bradycardia, and altered sodium-potassium balance.
Addison’s disease
inflammation of adrenal glands
Adrenalitis
lack or loss of appetite; symptom in some endocrine disorders
Anorexia
pituitary basophilism, with excessive secretion of adrenocortical hormone, characterized by potbellied appearance, alopecia, increased thirst and urination, muscle wasting and the skin.
Cushing’s syndrome
metabolic disorder characterized by polyuria and polydipsia resulting from insufficient production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
Diabetes insipidus
metabolic disease caused by absolute or relative lack of insulin; signs include increased thirst and urination and sugar in urine (glucosuria).
Diabetes mellitus
hyperfunction of parathyroid of primary type resulting from neoplasms or unknown causes and secondary type because of metabolic disorder, producing calcium imbalance in bodily systems, with osteoporosis and deposition of calcium in tissues.
Hperparathyroidism
Overproduction of thyroid hormone, especially common in older cats.
Hyperthyroidism
developmental disorder caused by inadequate secretion of pituitary gonadotropins, resulting in sexual immaturity and decreased functional activity of gonads in males and females.
Hypoparathyroidism
underfunction of thyroid gland
Hypothyroidism
excessive thirst; symptom of diabetes.
Polydipsia
excessive urination; symptom of diabetes
Polyuria
muscle spasm and cramp; symptom of hypoparathyroidism
Tetany
inflammation of thyroid gland
Thyroditis
any disease or disorder of thyroid gland
Thyropathy
test for adrenal function
ACTH
blood plasma test to measure levels of cortisol to detect diseases of adrenal glands
Cortisol test
test of adrenocortical function
Dexamethasone suppression test
test T3 and T4 thyroxine-binding globulin
Thyroid hormone tests
anterior pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) injected to determine whether thyroid problems result from pituitary or thyroid dysfunction.
Thyroid stimulation test
congested heart failure
CHF
hit by car
HBC
daily
q.d.
polyuria and polydipsia
PU/PD
urinalysis
UA
American Kennel Club
AKC
Central nervous system
CNS
Patent ductus arteriosus
PDA
Physician’s Desk reference
PDR