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73 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
List the four types of Tissue!
Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous
What are the functions of muscle?
Motion
Maintenance of posture
Heat production
What are the three types of Muscle?
Skeletal
Smooth
Cardiac
Skeletal muscles will not contract unless?
stimulated by neurons!
Skeletal muscle is also called?
Striated muscle! (Because of its appearance under a microscope)
This muscle is attached to bones and moves the skeleton.
Skeletal Muscle
This muscle is also known as the voluntary muscle!
Skeletal Muscle
This muscle is involuntary in movement. It is also non-straited and a muscle of the viscera walling hollow organs.
Smooth Muscle
This muscle is involuntary and striated. It is of the heart.
Cardiac Muscle
What type of muscle is this?
Voluntary Striated Muscle
Skeletal Muscle
What are tough fibrous connective tissue bands which connect most skeletal muscles to bone?
Tendons
What are broad sheets of fibrous connective tissue which attach some muscles to bones or other muscles?
Aponeuroses
What is the location of a muscle that is more stable site of attachment?
The Origin
What is the location of a muscle that is more moveable attachment?
The Insertion
What is the one thing that a muscle does?
Muscles contract after stimulation by a nerve impulse.
What two words are used to describe a muscle or muscle group which directly produces a desired movement?
Prime Mover
or
Agonist
What word is used to describe a muscle or muscle group that directly opposes the action of the prime mover / agonist?
Antagonist
A term used for a muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover and assists in carrying out its action.
Synergist
A term used for muscles stabilize joints to allow other movements to take place.
Fixator
A powerful muscle used for chewing and closes the jaw?
Masseter
What are the muscles that raise and extend the head and neck?
Splenius
and
Trapezius
What is the muscle that extends the head and neck as well as pulls the front leg foward?
Brachiocephalicus
What is a smaller straplike flexor of the lower neck?
Sternocephalicus
What are the inspiratiory muscles that allow drawing air in and expanding the thoracic cavity?
Diaphragm
and
External intercoastal muscles
What are the expiratory muscles?
Internal intercoastal muscles
and
Abdominal Muscles
What is the muscle that flexes the shoulder and propels body forward?
Latissimus Dorsi Muscle
What is the adductors (inward movers) muscle of the front legs?
Pectoral Muscles
What is the abducts (outward movers) and flexes the shoulder joint?
Deltoid Muscle
What is the muscle that flexes the elbow joint?
Biceps Brachii
What is the muscle that extends the elbow joint?
Triceps Brachii
What is the pelvic limb muscle extensors of the hip joing which pulls the leg backward?
Gluteal Muscles
What is the pelvic limb muscle extensors of the hip joint and main flexors of the stifle joint propeling the animal forward?
Hamstring muscle group
What is the pelvic limb muscle of the main extensor of the stifle?
Quadriceps femoris
What is the pelvic limb muscles powerful extensor of the hock which propels the body forward?
Gastrocnemius Muscle
What are the best locatons for intramuscular injection sites?
The best areas are large, thick muscle bellies which are easily accessible and place the person injecting the drug in a relatively safe location.

Ideal locations are not neighboring sensitive structures such as nerves and will allow for ventral drainage should a complication occur.
What are intramuscular injection sites for cats and dogs?
Pelvic Limbs
-Gluteal Muscles
-Quadriceps Femoris Muscle
-Hamstring Group

Thoracic Limb
-Triceps Brachii Muscle
What are intramuscular injection sites for cattle and goats?
Pelvic Limb
-Gluteal Muscles
-Hamstring Groups

Thoracic Limb
-Triceps Brachii Muscle

Neck
-Trapezius Muscle
What are intramuscular injection sites for horses?
Pelvic Limb
-Gluteal Muscles
-Hamstring Group

Thoracic Limb
-Triceps Brachii Muscle

Neck
-Trapezius Muscle

Chest
-Pectoral Muscles
What are intramuscular injection sites for swine?
Pelvic Limb
-Semitendinosus Muscle

Neck
-Brachiocephalicus Muscle
-Trapezius Muscle
Each individual skeletal muscle fiber is surrounded by delicate connective tissue known as?
Endomysium
Groups of skeletal muscle fibers are called?
Fascicles
Fascicles are bound together by tougher connective tissue known as the?
Perimysium
Groups of fascicles are surrounded by?
Epimysium
These three connective tissues (endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium) are continous with the?
muscle attachements!
(Tendons and Aponeuroses)
Muscles fiber is not a single cell and it's parts are given special names such as?
Sarcolemma - plasma membrane
Sacroplasmic Reticulum - Endoplasmic Reticulum
Sacrosome - Mitochondrion
Sarcoplasm - Cytoplasm

Remember these terms are similar in structure and function as other cells.
Muscle fibers or myofibrils are made up of long parallel protein molecules called?
Myofilaments
There are two types of myofilaments. What are they?
Actin: Thin Myofilaments
Myosin: Thick Myofilaments
The thick filaaments produce the dark?
A band
What is the area called where the thick filaments do not overlap?
I Band
What is the place where thick and thin filaments don't overlap?
H Zone
The entire array of thick and thin filaments between the Z lines is called the?
Sarcomere
What is the thick filaments binding site called?
Myosin Head

A sort of hinge that allows a swivelling motion and causes muscle contraction.
What is the cell membrane of a muscle cell called?
The Sarcolemma!
Take a look at how it works!
The myosin head binds to the actin and atp binding sites. All these chemicals work together to create the ratchet affect.
What happens as the ATP concentration in a muscle declines and the myosin heads end up bound to the actin bind site?
They can no longer swivel.

This is also what occurs with Rigor Mortis.
The nervous system communicates with muscle via the?
neuromuscular junction!
(also called the myoneural junction)
The minimum unit of contraction in a muscle is called the?
Motor Unit!
The response of a motor unit is?
All or None!
Even at rest most of our skeletal muscles are in a state of partial contraction called?
Tonus
When tension or force generated by the muscle is greater than the load and the muscle shortens it is called?
Isotonic contraction.
When load is greater than the tension or force generated by the muscle and the muscle does not shorten it is called?
Isometric contraction.
The response of a skeletal muscle to a single stimulation (or action potential) is called a?
Twitch
The period where the message impulse is traveling since the muscle cannot contract instantaneously is called?
Latent period
The time tension increases (cross-briges are swivelling) is called?
Contraction period
When the muscle relaxes (tension decreases) and tends to return to its original length is called?
Relaxation period
What are the two types of muscle fibers?
Type I Fibers
and
Type II Fibers

Ratio of Type I and Type II can be changed by endurance training. Produces more Type I!
List some aspects of Type I Muscle Fibers:
Loaded with Mitochondria
Depend on cellular respiration
Resistant to fatigue
Rich in myoglobin
Known as "slow-twitch" fibers
List some aspects of Type II Muscle Fibers:
Few Mitochondria
Rich in glycogen
Depends on glycolysis
Fatigue easily
Low in myoglobin
Known as "Fast-Twitch" fibers
Even if the nerves are destroyed the heart continues to?
beat!
What is the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle?
Some regenerative capacity.
What is the regenerative capacity of cardiac muscle?
None
What is the regenerative capacity of smooth muscle?
Highly regenerative capacity.
Muscles
Muscles