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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Waht are the etiologies for adult bacterial meningitis?
Strept suis II
E. coli
Salmonella spp
Mycoplasma spp
Hemophilus suis/parasuis (glassers disease)
What is the pathogenesis of Audlt bacterial meningitis?
Enters wound, respiratory tract, intestinal tract or skin
Hematogenous spread and replication
Bacterial emboli are trapped in meninges
What are the gross lesions seen with Adult bacterial meningitis?
cloudy meninges
gray to yellow fibrinous exudate
What is the response to injury for adult bacterial meningitis?
Neutrophils in meninges
subacute inflamm response
fibrin
What are the etiologies for brain and spinal cord abscesses?
C. pyogenes
C. pseudotuberulosis
Strept spp
What is the pathogenesis for brain and spinal cord abscesses?
Ingestion or entry and replication in wound
Hematogenous spread
direct extension
What is the etiology for protozoal encephalomyelitis?
Toxo

Neospora caninum
What is the response to injury for Protozoal encephalomyelitis?
Organisms in endothelial cells and neurons

Organisms in cysts in neuropil

Granulamatous vasculitis and meningitis

always asymmetrical lesion
What is the pathogenesis for protozoal encephalomyelitis?
leukocytic trafficking--in monocytes

infection of endothelial cells

vasculitis and neuronal necrosis
What is the most common cause of fungal encephalomyelitis in cats and horses?
cryptococcosis
What are the two examples of subtle CNS injury caused by parasitic larval migration?
Cerebrospinal nematodiasis

cuterebra spp in cats
large breed dogs and rapidly growing horses are often affected by what disease?
cervical myelopathy
What diagnostic tool can be used to differentiate between fibrous astrocytoma and granuloma?
impression smear
what is the etiology for CDV?
Morbillivirus
What is the pathogenesis for CDV?
Aerosol transmission
trapped in mucosa of nasal turbinates

infects local macs
spread by macs to regional lymph nodes(retropharyngeal)
CDV replicates in regional lymph nodes

Primary viremia
infects systemic lymph nodes, thymus, spleen
What is the pathogenesis for CDV?
Immunosuppression
-secondary bacterial infections such as bronchopneumonia

Seconday viremia
What are the three possible outcomes for a dog that has acquired CDV?
die

develop a timely systemic immune response and recover

develop a chronic inflammatory/demyelinating disease
What is the response to injury for CDV?
polioencephalomyelitis

Neuronal and glial degeneration and necrosis

lymphomonocytic perivasculitis and meningitis

inclusions in neurons and glial cells
What unusual cells may be seen in the demyelinating phase of CDV?
gitter cells
What are the gross lesions for Dural Ossification?
red plaques in meninges
What are the gross lesions seen in cerebrovascular atherosclerosis?
yellow streaks in intima

tortuous beaded appearance of vessels
What are the gross lesions seen in brain-heart syndrome?
pale white foci in myocardium of ventricles
especially in papillary muscles
What is the pathogenesis of Brain-Heart syndrome?
over stimulation of beta receptors
What are the etiologies for cerebellar hypoplasia?
Panleukopenia virus--cats

BVD/MD virus --cattle and sheep

Blue tongue virus-- sheep and calves
What are the gross lesions seen with feline ischemic encephalopathy?
malacia of focal cerebral cortex
What is the response to injury for feline ischemic encephalopathy?
necrosis, loss of myelin, gitter cells
What is the etiology for feline ischemic encephalopathy?
cuterebra
What is the etiology for protozoal encephalomyelitis?
sarocystis neurona
What is the pathogenesis of Protozoal Encephalomyelitis?
Ingested
hematogenous spread in monocytes
Injury related to:
-protozoan in neuron and endothelial cells
-degeneration caused by replication
-rupture of parasitic cyst
-inflammation associated with cyst rupture and release of parasites into neuropil
What are the etiologies for Herpes virus Encephalitis in horses?
Equine herpesvirus I

Equine rhinopneumonitis virus
What is the pathogenesis for herpes virus encephalitis?
Hematogenous spread
endothelial cell infection
thrombosis of small arteries and veins
virus induced ischemic vasculitis
What is the etiology for Equine Arbovirus encephalomyelitis?
Group A arbovirus
Does Arbovirus effect white or gray matter?
gray matter
What is the pathogenesis for Arbovirus Encephalomyelitis?
Mosquito vectors
Bird reservoirs
Hematogenous spread
What are the gross lesions for leukoencephalomalacia?
liqufactive necrosis of white matter

usually frontal or parietal lobes
What are the etiologies for Moldy corn poisoning?
Fusarium moniliforme toxin

fumonisin B1 in moldy corn
What is the response to injury for leukoencephalomalacia?
liqufactive necrosis
perivascular hemorrhage in white matter
axonal degeneration
gitter cells
What are the gross lesions for cerebrospinal nematodiasis?
focal or linear red tracts in neuropil
What are the etiologies for cerebrospinal nematodiasis?
Strongylus vulgaris
Strongylus equinus
Seteria spp.
What is the etiology for listeriosis?
Listeria monocytogenes
what is the pathogenesis for listeriosis?
Penetrate Oral mucosa
local tissue necrosis
follow cranial nerves
What are the gross lesions for TEME?
Randomly distributed red foci in brain and spinal cord
What is the etiology for TEME?
Hemophilus somnus
In what way is Hemophilus somnus usually contracted?
through the respiratoy tract
What age range of goats are primaraly affected with viral leukoencephalomyelitis?
2-4 months
What is the etiology for Cerebrospinal Angiopathy?
E. coli
What ae the etiologies for serous rhinitis?
mild irritants or allergic reactions
cold air
early stages of viral infection
What are the specific causes associated with Granulamatous Rhinitis?
systemic mycoses

tuberulosis

foreign bodies
What causes IBR?
bovine herpesvirus-1
Are the majority of nasal tumors malignant or benign?
malignant
What is the etiology fo guttural pouch mycosis?
Aspergillus fumigatus
othe Aspergillus spp.
What is the etiology for necrotic laryngitis?
Fusobacterium necrophorum
What is the pathogenesis of Rhodococcus Pneumonia?
Inhalation of infected dust or aerosols

rapid phagocytosis by macs defective lysosome fusion leads to survival and replication
What are the equine parasitic pneumonias?
parascaris equorum

Dictyocaulus arnfieldi
What is the most important disease in cattle? this is what Dr. Zachary said.
Pneumonic pasteurellosis
What are the three primary virus involved with Pneumonic Pasteurellosis?
IBR
PI3
BRSV
What is the secondary bacteria involved in Pneumonic Pasteurellosis?
Mannheimia haemolytica
What clinical sign is seen with Pneumonic Pasteurellosis?
Extremely high temps
What are the etiologies for Verminous Pneumonia in cattle and in sheep?
Dictyocaulus viviparus in cattle

Dictyocaulus filaria in sheep
What is the pathogenesis of Maedi (Maedia-Visna)?
ingestion of infected colostrum

contact between infected and susceptible sheep
Does Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia result in fibrinous exudate?
NO
What are the etiologies for porcine parasitic pneumonias?
Metastrongylus apri

Ascaris suum
What are the bacterial agents that cause pneumonia in dogs after a primary viral injury?
P. multocida
Strept. spp.
E.coli
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Bordetella bronchiseptica
What species cause Pyogranulamatous Pleuritis?
Nocardia spp
Actinomyces spp
Bacteroides spp
x
x