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93 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
axon
nerve fiber of aneuron carrying an impulse away from the cell body
chemoreception
a sense organ that responds to chemical molecules.
ciliary body
the tiny ring of muscle in the eye that focuses the lens
cristae
a mechanoreceptor within the semicircular canals of the vestibular apparatus of the ear; specialized neuromast organ detecting angular acceleration
dendrite
a nerve fiber of a neuron carrying impulsed toward the perikaryon
electroreceptor
a sensory organ that respons to electrical signals or fields
ganglion cells
a gallering of nerve cells bodies within peripheral nervous system
hair cell
a mechanoreceptive cell with a projecting hair bundle composed of a single kinodilium and seve3ral stereocilium
incus - def and derived from
the middle ear bone of mammals derived phylogenetically from the quadrate
kinocilium
a modified rigid cilium of the ear
macula
a mechanoreceptor within the vestibular apparatus of the ear; specialized neuromast organd detecting changes in body posture and acceleration
malleus- def and deriv
one of the three middle ear bones in mammals- phylogenetically derived from articular bone
mechanoreceptor
a sense organ that responds to small changes in mechanical force
neuromast organ
a mechanoreceptive organ composed of several hair cells as in the later line of the inner ear
olfaction
the act of smelling
otolith
a single calcareous mass in the cupulla of the hairs
pheromone
a chemical released into the environment by one individual taht influences the behavior or physiology of another individual of the same species
photopic
color vision in bright light.
photoreceptor
a radiation sensory receptor responsive to visible light stimuli
proprioreception
a specialized interoreceptor that responds to limb position, joint angle, and state of muscle contraction
scotopic
sensitivity to dim light
stapes - columella - hyomandibula
one of three middle ear bones in mammals phylogenetically derived from the colummella
stereocilia
very long microvilli
stereoscopic vision
denoting the ability to see images in 3 dimensions
tympanum
the eardrum or typanic membrane
vestibular apparatus
a sensory organ of the inner ear composed of semicircular canals and associated compartments such as sacculus, utriculus, and cochlea (lagena)
vomeronasal organ
a chemosensory organ present in the nasal chamber or roof of the mouth of some tetrapods
sensory receptors
monitor external and internal environment: specialized organs that respond to selected information. Code or translate environmental energies into nerve impulses that are transmitted to the CNS via afferent fibers which may or may not be received at conscious level of brain
perception
sensations that we as humans become conscious of
olfactory epithelium
specialized patch of epithelium within the nasal cavity that contains basal cells (replacement cells) and sustentacular cells which secrete mucus and support the olfacotry sensory cells
cribiform plate
olfacotry sensory cells sprout a tuft of sensory cilia at its apical end. at its basal end it sends an axon through the cribiform plate into the olfactory bulb
olfactory nerve
applied to the short axons from the olfactory sensory cells
Jacobson's organ
vomeronasal organ
taste buds
chemoreceptors of taste located in mouth: in amphibs, reptiles, and birds located in mouth and pharynx
facial, vagus, glossopharyngeal nerves
deliver info from taste buds to nervou system
gustary cells
light cells are thought to be the primary chemoreceptive cells of the taste bud
electromagnetic spectrum
cosmic radiation, radio waves, intermediate wavelenths
eye photoreceptors
sensitive to light
sclera
outer layer of the eye: white of yee: tought CT capsule attached to extrinsic ocular muslces: helps define shape of eyeball
scleral ossicles
birds, reptiles, fish: small plates of bone
choroid
adjacent to retina, largest region, highly vascularized, provides nutritional support ot the ocular tissues
tapetum lucidum
special reflective material on the choroid of nocturnal anaimals
iris
3rd region of the uvea, thin continuation of the uvea across the front of the eyeball
pupil
not a structure but an opening defined by the free edge of the iris
retina
innermost layer fo the eye, photosensitive: 3 layers
rods
in deepest layer of cells in retinal layer: sensitive to low levels of illumination but not colors
cones
sensitive to colors in bright light
horizontal and bipolar cells
synapse with photoreceptor cells
macrine and ganlion cells
proximal to horizontal and bipolar cells
sequence of light entering eye
retina->ganglion->amacrine->bipolar->and horizontal cells before it reaches the photoreceptive rods and cones
fovea
indention in retina: in few verts- point at the back of the lightball where light converges: pt of sharpest focus
anterior cahmber
btw. iris and cornea: in front of lens
posterior chamber
btw. iris and lens: in front of lens
vitreal chamber
third and larges chamber: located behind lense
aqueous humor
fills the anterior and posterior chamber that helps maintin shapee of eyeball
vitreous humor
in vitreal chamber
optic vesicles
development of the eye begins with the appearance of these paired outgrowths from the sides of the future telencephalon
pappilary cone
in reptiles projected into the vitrous chamber to provide nutiriotn support for deep ocular tissue
pecten
in birds projected into vitreoius chamber
opsins
visual pigments that are proteins conjugated with a light absorbing derivative of vitamin A
monocular vision
vision in which the visual fiedls do not overlap: common in prey animals
vinocular vision
visual field overlaps in animals.
stereoscopic vison
within the areas of overlap the 2 visual fields merge into a single image
optic chiasm
in binocular vision, the visual field half of input crosses here to the opp side of brain
pineal gland
epiphysis if it is largely endocrine in functioin
infrared receptors
thermoreceptors
labial pits
along lips of pythons that hold nerve endings
fascial pits
sunken- sensory nerve endings are suspended in a thin pit membrane halfway btw. the bootom and the top of the pit
cupula
the projecting hair bundles are usually embedded this gelatinous cap
lateral line system
present in most cyclostomes, other fish, aquatic amphibs but unknown in terrest. verts
endolymph
fills vestibular apparatus
perilymph
surrounds vestibular apparatus
otic placode
vestibular apparatus forms from this embryologically,
sacculus and utriculus
connecting compartments in the vestibular apparatus
semicircular canals
oriented in 3 planes of space
cochlea
sensory receptor of sound in here: lagena becomes coiled into this sin mammals
organ of corti
sensory receptor of sound= specialized strip of neuromasts connected to the brain via the auditory nerve
external auditory meatus
short indented tube which opens to the surface through external orifice. longated in birds and mammals
pinna
correct term for ear- exteral cartilaginous flap surrounding external orifice
middle ear ossicles
three tiny bones in middle ear
tympanum
ear drum, thin taut membrane
eustachian tube
maintains continuity btw. the middle ear cavity and the pharynx
scala vestibuli
one of 3 coiled fluid filled channels of cochlea
scala tympani
one of 3 coiled fluid filled channels of cochlea
scala media
canal btw. scala vestibuli and scala media
basilar membrane
separates the scala tympani from the scala media and the organ of Corti vibrates with the basilar membrane
tectorial membrane
firm plate in which hair bundles of organ of corti are embedded
fenestra ovalis
sound enters the inner ear through this oval window
fenestra rotunda
round window at the end of the perilymphatic cannals
macula neglecta
supplementary sensory area near the utriculus
weberian ossicles
in other species, the swim bladder is connected to the inner ear through these bones
stapedial muscle
thought to be derivative of the levator scapulae and runs from teh suprascapula to the stapes
electroplaques
in electric fish: specialized blocks of muscle which form the electric organ