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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
fluid component and ground substance of blood
formed elements of blood
1) erthrocytes... contain?
2) leucocytes
3) fibrous cell
1) red blood cells
2) white blood cells
3) platelets
TF: All vertebrate RBCs are nucleate.
F, mammal RBCs are anucleate
What are some functions of the circulatory system?
- respiration
- disease protection
- nutrition
- excretion
- thermal control
- osmotic balance
- hormone transport
Vessels that carry blood:
1) toward the heart
2) away from the heart
1) veins
2) arteries
Name the two circulatory structures with one-way valves.
heart, veins
This structure shunts blood to appropriate locations, increasing or decreasing gas exchange to an organ
precapillary sphincters
What embryonic tissue forms the primitive heart?
splanchnic mesoderm (from the hypomere)
What is the pulsing of the cellular heart called?
cardiogenic contraction
Receiving chamber for blood entering the heart
sinus venosus
Valves occuring after the ventricle
semilunar valves
Taxonomic heart chambers:
1) fish
2) amphibians
3) reptiles
4) birds/mammals
1) 2
2) 3
3) ~3.5
4) 4
Component of heart that contracts in a squeezing motion
spiral musculature
What is the difference between single and double circuit cirulatory systems?
Double circuit systems include a pulmonary loop from the heart to the gas exchange location, then back to the heart before leaving for the body.
This structure in crocodiles functions while diving. Name it and describe its function.
The foramen of panizza shunts blood to body rather than lungs while diving to reduce waste of excess circuit length.
This nerve center is the pacemaker of the heart and supplies the _______ with synchronized beat instructions.
sinoatrial node, atrium
This secondary ciculatory nerve center relays the original signal to the ventricle of the heart via ______ fibers.
atrioventricular node, Purkinje
These paired arteries supply the anterior appendages.
subclavian arteries
These unpaired arteries supply the digestive tract.
celiac, anterior and posterior mesenteric
These paired arteries supply the anterior appendages.
iliac arteries
In mammals and birds, which embryonic aortic arches supply the following vessels?
1) carotid
2) aortic
3) pulmonary
1) 3
2) 4 (L in mammals, R in birds)
3) 6
In reptiles, the posterior cardinal vein is reduced to small ______ veins.
The embryonic umbilical vein is reduced to this after birth.
falciform ligament
The ductus arteriosus bridges the _____ and ________ systems and is reduced to the _______ after birth.
pulmonary, systemic, libamentum arteriosum
This embryological gap between the right and left atria is called ______ ______ and is reduced to the _______ _______ after birth.
foramen oval, fossa ovalis
Interstitial body fluid is collectively termed:
This is the name for lymph collected in intestinal villi.
Lymphatics terminate in a _______ vein.
What kinds of fluids are exchanged in capillary beds.
proteins, lipids, salts
This vessel structure is a bundle of arteries and veins in close proximity. What is its name and function?
rete, uses countercurrent exchange for oxygen storage and temperature control
This is the technical name for platelets.
These cells are precursors of the body's blood cells. Name and location?
hemocytoblasts; liver, kidney, spleen, and bone marrow (hemopoietic tissue)
What is the initial source of hemocytoblasts?
blood islands of the yolk sac
Chart the basic path through a fish's single-circuit heart system.
sinus venosus --> atrium --> ventricle --> conus arteriosus --> ventral aorta --> aortic arches
Which animals have a double circuit circulatory system?
lung breathing vertebrates (right heart receives, left pumps out)
What are some methods of avoiding mixing oxygen-rich and poor blood in the heart?
- spiral valve (for 1 ventricle)
- ventricular septa
- total separation (croc, birds and mammals)
The sinus venosus is remnant as what structure in birds and mammals?
the sinoatrial node
The swelling of the ventral aorta in teleosts and perennibranchiate urodeles is called what?
bulbus arteriosus
In the crocodile, the paired dorsal aorta between arches 3 and 4 is called the...
dorsus caroticus
Embryonic subintestinal and vitelline veins are part of what system?
the hepatic portal system
Allantoic (umbilical) veins drain the:
allantois or placenta
What portal system is absent mammals?
renal portal system
What type of waste does the urinary system remove?
nitrogenous (ammonia); it also maintains the body's water and electrolyte balance
Name the three methods of urinary elimination, the end product, and the animals in which each exists.
1) ammonotelism - ammonia (fish)
2) ureotelism - urea (mammals)
3) uricotelism - uric acid (birds, reptiles)
Embryonic kidney cells are called:
The embryonic _____, or pre-kidney, is drained by the ________ duct.
pronephros, archinephric duct
What is the name of the hypothetical ancient kidney and its characteristics?
archinephros; external glomeruli, simple, metameric tubules, and nephrostomes
The ________, caudal to the mesonephros, uses remaining pronephric ducts, is functional in adult _______ and ________, and is temporary in _________.
metanephros; fish; amphibians; amniotes (the opistonephros)
The mesonephric tubules invade the testis to become the __________, which conduct sperm and is present in amniotes as the __________.
vasa efferentia; vas deferens
The collective term for the glomerulus and capusle is...
renal corpuscle (Bowman's capsule)
The combined renal corpuscle and attached tubule form a _________.
These structures are essential arterial retia that filter water and solutes from the blood.
Glomerulus tubules converge into the _________ ____.
longitudinal duct
This kidney structure allows for the resorption of excess fluid and materials taken into the kidney.
Loop of Henle
This specialized bone allows for water and heat regulation while breathing.
turbinate bone (nasal)
An undifferentiated gonad develops from this embryonic structure.
genital ridge
This duct, degenerate in females, is derived from the archinephric duct and becomes the vas deferens in males.
Wolffian duct
This duct is degenerate in males and become the oviduct in females.
Mullerian duct
The maturing follicle in the ovary is the:
Graafian follicle
A healing ruptured follicle is called the ____ ______. Full healed, it becomes a ______ _____.
corpus luteum; corpus albicans
TF: The genital ridge is lateral to the nephric ridge.
False. It is medial.
The white covering on the embryonic gonads the ______ _____.
tunica albuginea
Trace the route of sperm from the testes in males.
seminiferous tubules --> efferent ductules --> epididymis --> vas deferents --> urethra
Name the three structures that add additional components to semen.
seminal vescicles, Cowper's glands, prostate gland
Spermato- and oo- genesis are controlled by this hormone.
follicle stimulating hormone, FSH
This is a technical term for the onset of reproductive readiness.
The ability of the male to engage in copulation is called?
Name some copulatory organs:
- gonopodium
- ovipositor
- clasper
- hemipenis
- penis
The common chamber that receives products from the kidneys, intestines, and gonads, is the _____ and its opening called the ____.
cloaca; vent
The (location) compartment of the cloaca into which the 1) intestine 2) urinary duct 3) reproductive tract empties is the...
1) proximal, coprodeum
2) medial, urodeum
3) distal, proctodeum
Name the folds that separate the component areas of the cloaca:
1) rectocoprodeal
2) coprourodeal
3) uroproctodeal
Which group of animals have a bifid penis and a divided uterus?
The period of time from conception to hatching is called:
The developmental suspension of a fertilized embryo is called:
embryonic diapause
The 1)fast and 2)slow control mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis are:
1) nervous
2) endocrine
What are the chemical components of hormones?
peptides, polypeptides, glycoproteins, steroids, or amines (few)
Peptide hormones are produced by which embryonic tissues?
ectoderm and endoderm
Steroid hormones are produced by which embryonic tissue?
This type of hormone-releasing structure communicates locally through diffusion into interstitial tissue.
paracrine cland
What are the two ways a hormone can affect a cell?
by entering directly or by binding to the plasma membrane, which signals a sequence of actions
Name the primary endocrine glands.
- pineal
- hypothalamus, pituitary
- thyroid/parathyroid
- thymus
- adrenal
- islet cells of pancreas
- ovary and testis
Where is the pineal gland located?
the roof of the midbrain
This hormone is secreted by the pineal gland. It regulates circadian rhythms and inhibits the release of MSH and gonadotropins.
The nerves that inform the pineal gland originate from:
the eyes
Melotonin is the precurser to this hormone.
The pituitary gland is located:
beneath the brain
This ventral outrgrowth of the diencephalon of the brain becomes part of the pituitary.
infundibulum (stalk)
A diverticulum from the stomodeum in the brain form's ______ _______, a part of the pituitary.
Rathke's pouch
The 1) posterior 2) anterior part of the pituitary is called the...
1) neurohypophysis (pars nervosa)
2) adenohypophysis
The cleft between the two parts of the pituitary is called what?
pars intermedia
As we look along the phylogenetic "tree," what is the pattern of the pituitary?
reduced function
The ______ portal system is the liason between the hypothalamus and the pituitary.
These specialized cells communicate with the pituitary gland by secretions.
neurosecretory cells
What two hormones does the neurohypophysis produce?
anti-diuretic hormone (vasopressin) and oxytocin
Name the 7 hormones that the adenohypophysis produces.
- growth hormone
- thyroid-stimulating hormone
- prolactin
- endorphins
TF: The neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis use separate blood supplies.
This hormone stimulates the thyroid gland.
thyrotropic hormone
This hormone controls the relazse of liver somatomedin.
growth-stimulating hormone (GSH)
These two hormones regulate metamorphosis, growth, and reproduction. Where are they made and what are their names?
thyroid gland; thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine, T4), and triiodothyronine, T2
This hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce adrenaline.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
This hormone promotes the development of ovarian follicles and sperm.
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
This hormone develops the corpus luteum from a follicle and is used for the production of progersterone and testosterone.
luteinizing hormone (LH)
This hormone affects osmoregulation in fishese, in addition to maternal behavior and silk synthesis (mammals)