Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/95

Click to flip

95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
top, nonvascular layer of skin
epidermis
lower, vascular layer of skin
dermis
this embryonic structure forms the epidermis
ectoderm
this embryonic structure forms the dermis
mesodermal dermatome
name the standard layers of the skin, top to bottom
1. stratum corneum
2. stratum germinatum
3. basal membrane
4. blood vessels
5. collagen and smooth muscle fibers
name some functions of the integument
1. protection
2. extroreception
3. respiration
4. excretion
5. thermoregulation
6. locomotion
7. homeostasis
8. sexual/species signaling
9. production of vitamin D
10. prevention of dessication
11. color and camoflage
extant fishes have ____________ skin covered by ______
nonkeratinized, mucous
in extant fishes, the dermis gives rise to _____ _____ and _____ _______
dermal bone, dermal scales
what are some functions of the mucous on fish integument?
1. protection
2. reduction of friction
3. precipitation of particles suspended in water
4. maintenance of osmotic balance
what do some amphibian glands produce for protection?
alkaloids or poisons
large, platelike reptilian scales
scute
reptilia: dermal abdominal bones
gastralia
cells responsible for pigmentation of integument
melanophores/chromatophores
aves: sebaceous gland at base of tail
uropygial gland
aves: integumentary gland found in marine birds
salt gland
name four specializations of the mammalian integument
1. hair
2. glands
3. nails/claws/hooves
4. horns/antlers
the site of active cell division in skin is called the--
germinal layer
what is the name of the smooth muscle with origin on the dermis and insertion on the shaft of a hair?
arrector pili
another name for an animal's coat of fur
pelage
long, coarse outer hairs
guard hairs
sensory organs, extension of hair
vibrissae
modification of hair used for protection from predators
quills
name the layers of a hair, from outside in
1. cuticle
2. cortex
3. medulla
what is the name for the patterns in which hair grows?
hair tracts
what is the formal name for oil-producing glands? name some derivations of this type of gland.
sebaceous glands; wax and meibomian glands (ear and eye, respectively)
where are sweat glands found in high concentration?
friction ridges on hands and feet
the hard and soft part of nails and claws are called:
unguis, subunguis
the outer covering of bone
periosteum
circles of bone formation connected to each other by canals (name the formation and the canals)
lamellae, Volkmann's canals
this canal supplies the bone lamellae
Haversian canal
spongy bone (_______ bone) is mostly hollow, connected by spicules called ________
cancellous, trabeculae
_______ bone formation begins in cartilage, with the primary ossification center located in the _______
endochondral, diaphysis
secondary ossification centers begin at the _______, and growth occurs at the ________ _________
epiphyses, epiphyseal plate
when ossification begins in the mesenchyme, it's called _______ and is formed in what way?
intramembranous, flat sheets
this type of connective tissue links bones together
ligaments
this type of connective tissue links muscle to bone
tendons
when mature connective tissue ossifies, a _________ bone is formed
sesamoid
the part of the skull most closely associated with the senses
chondrocranium
section of the skull that supposedly developed from mandibular arches
splanchnocranium
section of the skull that forms protective outer layer of bone
dermatocranium
name the 5 bone series of the dermatocranium
1. facial
2. orbital
3. vault
4. temporal
5. palatal
jaw attachment in which there is a single point of articulation at the palatoquadrate
autostylic
jaw attachment in which there is are two points of articulation at the palatoquadrate and hyomandibula
amphistylic
jaw attachment with multiple points of articulation at the hyomandibula and other mobile attachments
hyostylic
name the three "ancestral" bones that form the inner ear and their mammal homologues
hyomandibula --> stapes
quadrate --> incus
articular --> malleus
type of cranial kinesis with transverse hinge across skull root
metakinesis
type of cranial kinesis with hinge behind orbit
mesokinesis
type of cranial kinesis with hinge in front of orbit
prokinesis (either monokinetic or dikinetic)
the pelvic girdle forms only by _________ ossification
endochondral
the _____ is a structure in birds analagous to phalanges
manus
a pointed-toe posture
unguligrade
a posture resting on the phalanges
digitigrade
human posture, suited for walking
plantigrade
muscles that originate proximally and insert distally
extrinsic
muscles that originate distally and insert proximally
extrinsic
helping muscles
synergists
a prime moving muscle
agonist
muscle that reverses primary movement
antagonist
this process causes muscle to place itself in between vertebrae, allowing for attachment between them
scleratomal resegmentation
______ muscle insertions create strength, ________ insertions allow speed
distal, proximal
this jaw structure allows some degree of free rotation to the quadrate against its dorsal connection with the braincase
streptostyly
name 6 functions of muscle
1. movement
2. protection
3. heat production
4. noise
5. electricity
6. protein source
abduct:adduct::
away:towards
name some examples of dermal muscle
panniculus carnosus (mole skin)
curling hedgehog
quivering horse
name the chin muscle in mammals
platysma
respiration requires
highly vascular membranes and thin, moist epithelia
the moving of oxygenated medium across an exchange surface is called
ventilation
the loss of O2 in blood by pumping it though capillaries is called
perfusion
arising in the walls of pharyngeal pouches and supported by the pharyngeal arches, these structures exchange oxygen in a watery environment
internal gills
the number of this respitory structure are associated with general activity level
gill filaments
this structure keeps debris from entering the gills
gill raker
name the three types of gills and their structure
1. pseudobranch (reduced 1st gill slit)
2. helobranch (lamellae on both ant/post septum)
3. hemibranch (lamellae on only one side)
how do gills osmoregulate?
by excreting nitrogenous wastes and C02
from where do lungs develop embryonically?
an outpocketing of the foregut
this type of air bladder has a permanent connection with the pharynx
physostomous
this type of air bladder maintains seperation between the air bladder and pharynx
physoclistus
the capillary bed of the air bladder is called
rete mirabile
name the respiratory pattern in the following groups: 1. fish, 2. aves, 3. mammals
1. countercurrent
2. crosscurrent
3. uniform pool (tidal)
what motion assists with turtle respiration, and why does it need assistance?
movement of the legs; the restriction is due to the inflexible carapace
pleuriperitoneal cavities belong in which group?
amphibians
pleural cavities belong to which groups?
crocodilians, birds, mammals
these structures in birds allow one-way flow of air
parabronchi
air exchange in avian capillary beds occurs at the
mediodorsal bronchus
air enters eggs through the __________ ________
chorioallantoic membrane
the organ that produces birdsong is called the _______ and is located at the _______ of the _________
syrinx, bifurcation, trachea
the opening to the trachea is called the __________, and its closing mechanism th
glottis, epiglottis
the digestive system (all except for its epithelium) form from this embryonic structure
splanchnic mesoderm
the anterior invagination of the embryo becomes the ________ while the posterior the ____________
stomodeum, proctodeum
the two membranes that form at the interface of digestive and integumentary systems are the
buccopharyngeal and aboral membranes
what is the falciform ligament of the liver?
a remnant of embryonic ventral mesentary
this bone stiffens the tongue of lizards and birds
entoglossal
in this tooth type, top and bottom are mismatched, creating a tearing surface
carnassial
in this tooth type, top and bottom are matched, creating a grinding surface
grinding(?)
this type of tooth is specialized for eating very hard substances
durophagus
name the general path of the digestive system
orophyaryngeal/oral cavity-->pharynx-->esophagus-->stomach-->intestine