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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Vertebrate Organization
Heart Chambers
Perch 2, Frog 3, Pig 4

Diaphragm
Perch No, Frog No, Pig Yes

Respiration
Perch Gills, Frog Skin/Lungs, Pig Lungs

Cloaca (where waste is eliminated or eggs/sperm expelled)
Perch No, Frog Yes, Pig No
Vertebrate Respiratory and Circulatory Systems of Fish
1 circulatory loop
2-chambered heart

1 Ventricle
1 Atrium
Vertebrate Respiratory and Circulatory Systems of Frogs
2 circulatory loops
3-chambered heart

2 Atrium
1 Ventricle
Vertebrate Respiratory and Circulatory Systems of Turtles and Lizzards
2 circulatory loops
3-chambered heart

2 Atrium
Vertebrate Respiratory and Circulatory Systems of Crocs
2 circulatory loops
4-chambered heart

2 Atrium
2 Ventricles
Vertebrate Respiratory and Circulatory Systems of Birds
2 circulatory loops
4-chambered heart

2 Atrium
2 Ventricles
Vertebrate Respiratory and Circulatory Systems of Mammals
2 circulatory loops
4-chambered heart

2 Atrium
2 Ventricles
Where are the attached located on the Perch
Heart
Gills
Swim bladder
Liver
Stomach
Small intestine
Large Intestine
Spleen
Mesenteries
Where are the attached located on the Frog
Heart
Lungs
Liver
Gall bladder
Stomach
Small intestine
Large Intestine
Spleen
Bladder
Kidney
Mesenteries
Fat bodies
Where are the attached located on the Pig
Diaphragm
Thoracic cavity
Heart (Atria, ventricles, great vessels)
Lungs
Abdominal cavity
Liver
Gall bladder
Stomach
Small intestine
Large Intestine
Spleen
Pancreas
Kidney
Bladder
Mesenteries
Peritoneum
Diaphragm Function
Inhalation:
* Air Moves In
* Rib cage Expands
* Lung Expands
* Diaphram contracts downward

Exhalation:
* Air Moves Out
* Ribcage Contracts
* Lungs Compresses
* diaphram relaxes upward
Epithelium-Squamous
Lines lungs and blood vessels;

decreases distance to facilitate diffusion; ex. Alveoli (air sacs at the end of the broncle tubes).

Flat pancake looking
Epithelium-Cuboidal
* Central located nuleous

*Secretion and absorption; ex. kidney tubules

*Lines the tubules
Epithelium-Columnar
Columnar epithelium of a villus in digestive tract, the falliopian tube is lined with Columnar.

Villi enhance SA/Vol for increased absorption

Nucleous at the base, looks like mouth with teeth.
Connective Tissue-Adipose
Adipose tissue; ex. Fat cells
Connective Tissue-Cartilage
Hyaline cartilage; support structure.

Cartilage is first seen in Cl. Chondrichthyes.

Looks like ghost eyes
Connective Tissue-Bone
Section of compact ground bone.

Bone is first seen in Cl. Osteichthyes

Looks like tree trunk
Connective Tissue - Blood
Normal cells of blood as seen in a blood smear. This slide shows many red blood cells and one neutrophil (or polymorphonuclear leukocyte). Neutrophils characteristically have a multi-lobed nucleus and very fine, neutral-stained cytoplasmic granules.

Basophil -- with very dark, coarse, basophilic (purple-blue) granules in the cytoplasm surrounding the lobed nucleus.
Muscle Tissue-Striated
Skeletal muscle cells (fibers) with sarcomeres (cross-striations). Allow for increased force of contraction.




Cardiac muscle with sarcomeres (cross-striations), intercalated discs, desmosones a site of adhesion between two epithelial cells, consisting of a dense attachment plaque separated from a similar structure in the other cell by a thin layer of extracellular material.
), and gap junctions.
Muscle Tissue-Smooth
Lacks sarcomeres ( One of the segments into which a fibril of striated muscle is divided)

Located in central region of intestine
Tissue and Structural Components Alveoli
Alveoli in lungs increase SA/Vol to enhance diffusion.
Tissue and Structural Components Villi
Villi enhance SA/Vol for increased absorption in small intestine.
Tissue and Structural Components Liver
Typical liver lobule, with cords of hepatic cells radiating from central vein.
Tissue and Structural Components Kidney
See Slide
Components of Cardiovascular System
Heart-pressure generator (bulk flow)

Arteries-pressure reservoirs
Arteries are the largest blood vessels, followed by veins and then capillaries
Three Layers, they are thick and elastic- Connective Tissue, a thick muscular layer and an endothelial layer.  Strength required to support pressure
Blood is pumped away from the heart
Blood contains oxygen (except in the case of the pulmonary artery)

Arterioles-pressure regulators

Veins- volume regulators
Valves prevent backflow of blood
Three Layers, they are thinner and less muscular

Capillaries- functional unit
Single-celled layer, suitable for gas and nutrient exchange, fluid volume exchange
Primary Layers of the Heart
The heart walls are made of three primary layers:

Endocardium- the innermost layer.  It is made of epithelial tissue and forms the lining of the entire circulatory system.
Myocardium- the middle layer.  This layer is the thickest of the three and is made up of cardiac muscle.
Epicardium- the outer layer.  The epicardium is the thin, external membrane
Epithelium-Columnar
Columnar epithelium of a villus in digestive tract.

Villi enhance SA/Vol for increased absorption
Connective Tissue-Adipose
Adipose tissue; ex. Fat cells

Looks like fat cells in water.

Lies around the kidney, behind eyeball
Connective Tissue-Cartilage
Hyaline cartilage; support structure.

Cartilage is first seen in Cl. Chondrichthyes.
Connective Tissue-Bone
Section of compact ground bone.

Bone is first seen in Cl. Osteichthyes
Connective Tissue - Blood
See Slide
Muscle Tissue-Striated
Skeletal muscle cells (fibers) with sarcomeres (cross-striations). Allow for increased force of contraction.




Cardiac muscle with sarcomeres (cross-striations), intercalated discs, desmosones, and gap junctions.
Muscle Tissue-Smooth
Lacks sarcomeres.
Located in central region of intestine
Tissue and Structural Components Alveoli
See Slide.

Alveoli (sac in lungs) in lungs increase SA/Vol to enhance diffusion.
Tissue and Structural Components Villi
See Slide

Villi (projection from mucous membrane) enhance SA/Vol for increased absorption in small intestine.
Tissue and Structural Components Liver
See Slide
Tissue and Structural Components Kidney
Note the appearance of the cortex on the left with that of the medulla on the right.
Components of Cardiovascular System
Heart-pressure generator (bulk flow)

Arteries-pressure reservoirs
Arteries are the largest blood vessels, followed by veins and then capillaries
Three Layers, they are thick and elastic- Connective Tissue, a thick muscular layer and an endothelial layer.  Strength required to support pressure
Blood is pumped away from the heart
Blood contains oxygen (except in the case of the pulmonary artery)

Arterioles-pressure regulators

Veins- volume regulators
Valves prevent backflow of blood
Three Layers, they are thinner and less muscular

Capillaries- functional unit
Single-celled layer, suitable for gas and nutrient exchange, fluid volume exchange
Primary Layers of the Heart
The heart walls are made of three primary layers:

Endocardium- the innermost layer.  It is made of epithelial tissue and forms the lining of the entire circulatory system.
Myocardium- the middle layer.  This layer is the thickest of the three and is made up of cardiac muscle.
Epicardium- the outer layer.  The epicardium is the thin, external membrane
Structural features of the Mammalian Heart
Right side vs. left side = thin vs. thick

Chordae tendonae anchor atrioventricular (AV) valves via papillary muscles (in base of ventrical)

Atria/auricles (with pectinate muscles) are located above AV valves & ventricles are below

Semilunar valves (at base of pulmonary artery & aorta and lack chordae tendonae)

Coronary system to heart muscle
Heart Chambers
Your heart has 4 chambers:
The upper chambers are called the left and right atria
lower chambers are called the left and right ventricles.
A wall of muscle called the septum separates the left and right atria and the left and right ventricles.
The left ventricle is the largest and strongest chamber in your heart. The left ventricle's chamber walls are only about a half-inch thick, but they have enough force to push blood through the aortic valve and into your body.
Heart Valves
The tricuspid valve regulates blood flow between the right atrium and right ventricle (right AV valve).  
The pulmonary semilunar valve controls blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary arteries, which carry blood to your lungs to pick up oxygen.  
The bicuspid (mitral) valve lets oxygen-rich blood from your lungs pass from the left atrium into the left ventricle (left AV valve).  
The aortic semilunar valve opens the way for oxygen-rich blood to pass from the left ventricle into the aorta, your body's largest artery, where it is delivered to the rest of your body.
Electrical Conduction System
Electrical impulses from your heart muscle (the myocardium) cause your heart to contract. This electrical signal begins in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located at the top of the right atrium. The SA node is sometimes called the heart's "natural pacemaker." An electrical impulse from this natural pacemaker travels through the muscle fibers of the atria and ventricles to the AV node, causing them to contract. Although the SA node sends electrical impulses at a certain rate, your heart rate may still change depending on physical demands, stress, or hormonal factors.
Electrocardiogram (EKG)
P wave = atrial depolarization (atrial contraction)

-- QRS complex =
Atrial repolarization (atrial relaxation)
Ventricular depolarization
(contraction = systole)

-- T wave = ventricular repolarization
(relaxation = diastole)
Blood Flow
Blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to every cell and removes the carbon dioxide and waste products made by those cells.
Blood is carried from your heart to the rest of your body through a complex network of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries.
Blood is returned to your heart through venules and veins.

The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body. This process of blood flow within your body is called circulation. Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart, and veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart.
In pulmonary circulation, though, the roles are switched. It is the pulmonary artery that brings oxygen-poor blood into your lungs and the pulmonary vein that brings oxygen-rich blood back to your heart
Primary Layers of the Heart
Pericardium
Epicardium
Mycardium
Endocardium
Electrical Conduction System
See Slide
Blood Flow Cont.
Atria Contracts forcing blood into the ventrical.

Then the ventrical contracts forcing blood through the arteries to the lung and the rest of the body.

The cycle ends as the heart relaxes.

Deoxygenated blood from the body enters the right ventricle.


Oxygenated blood from lungs enters left ventricle.

Oxygenated blood is pumped to the body.

Deoygentated blood is pumped to the lungs.

Blood fills the atria and begins to flow passivley into the ventricles.
Blood Flow through the Heart
Sup. and Inf. Vena Cava 
Right Atrium 
Right atrioventricular (AV) valve  (Tricuspid)
Right Ventricle 
Right (Pulmonary) Semilunar Valve 
Pulmonary
arteries 
Lungs 


Pulmonary veins 
Left Atrium 
Left AV (Bicuspid) valve 
Left Ventricle 
Left (Aortic) Semilunar valve 
Aorta Coronary system & General Circulation
Heart Sounds and Blood Pressure
As blood collects in the upper chambers (the right and left atria), the heart's natural pacemaker (the SA node) sends out an electrical signal that causes the atria to contract. This contraction pushes blood through the tricuspid and bicuspid valves into the resting lower chambers (the right and left ventricles). This part of the two-part pumping phase (the longer of the two) is called the diastole and correlates to arterial elastic recoil.

The second part of the pumping phase begins when the ventricles are full of blood. The electrical signals from the SA node travel along a pathway of cells to the ventricles, causing them to contract. This is called systole and correlates to cardiac function.

As the tricuspid and bicuspid valves shut tight (LUPP) to prevent a back flow of blood, the pulmonary and aortic valves are pushed open. While blood is pushed from the right ventricle into the lungs to pick up oxygen, oxygen-rich blood flows from the left ventricle to the heart and other parts of the body.

After blood moves into the pulmonary artery and the aorta, the ventricles relax, and the pulmonary and aortic valves close (DUPP). The lower pressure in the ventricles causes the tricuspid and bicuspid valves to open, and the cycle begins again.
Heart Sounds and Blood Pressure
Diastole

Systole
BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATIONS BY AUSCULATORY METHOD
Sphygmomanometer-Blood pressure measuring device
The deflated bag and cuff should be applied evenly and snugly but not too tightly around the arm with the lower cuff edge about one inch above the elbow joint and with the rubber bag over the inner aspect of the arm directly over the brachial artery.

SYSTOLIC: A stethoscope receiver should be applied snugly over the artery in the elbow joint, free from contact with the cuff. The pressure in the sphygmomanometer should then be raised rapidly and decreased slowly until a sound is heard with each heartbeat. Note the reading as systolic pressure.

DIASTOLIC: with continued deflation of the system below systolic pressure at a rate of 2 to 3 mmHg per heartbeat, the sounds undergo changes in intensity and quality. As the cuff pressure approaches diastolic, the sounds often become dull and muffled quite suddenly and finally cease. The point of cessation is the best index of diastolic pressure.

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), which refers to how high the pressure in the arteries can raise a column of mercury in a sphygmomanometer. Normal blood pressure for an adult, relaxed at rest, is about 100-130 over 80. The 100-130 is the systolic pressure; the diastolic pressure is 80. Blood pressure may increase or decrease, depending on your age, heart condition, emotions, activity and the medications you take.
Blood (plasma & formed elements)
Erythrocytes (RBC) red blood cells; biconcave discs; hemoglobin; oxygen transport
Platelets, involved in hemostasis
Leukocytes (WBC)
*Granulocytes
(1) Neutrophils
(2) Basophils
(3) Eosinophils
*Agranulocytes
(1) Lymphocytes B & T
(2) Monocytes
Blood Smear
Know this
Blood Cells
Know this
Reproduction and Embryology
Developmental stages--Starfish embryology (compound microscope)
Zygote  Morula (solid ball of cells)    Blastula with blastocoel Gastrula with blastopore opening into archenteron
(endoderm & ectoderm) tripoblastic
Starfish Stages
Know this
Germ Layers
Ectoderm:  Nervous system & Epidermis of Skin
Mesoderm Circulatory, muscular, & skeletal system; connective tissue
Endoderm Lining of digestive/respiratory system
The primary germ layers are the embryonic tissues from which all tissues & organs develop
Extraembryonic Membranes
Extraembryonic membranes within the eggs of Birds and Reptiles protect the embryo, allow gas exchange, and prevent dehydration. 

The chorion lies just beneath the shell and functions in gas exchange.
The allantois collects and stores nitrogenous wastes.
The yolk sac stores food.
The amnion cushions and provides a watery environment.

These membranes are also present in human embryos however, they take on different functions; human fetuses exchange food, wastes, and gasses through the placenta.

The placenta is derived partly from maternal tissues and partly from fetal tissues. The fetal part of the placenta develops from the chorion. 
The yolk sac is not needed to store food. Instead, blood cells develop there.
The umbilical cord forms from the yolk sac and allantois.
Terrestrial vertebrate embryological development
Yolk sac
Chick - Food -Human Placenta

Amnion
Chick and Human Amnotic Fluid

Allantois
Chick waste/storage
Human Placenta

Chorion
Chick Gas Exchange
Human Placenta
Chick Embryo-72 hour
Know this slide
Adolescent Brain
Know this slide
Common-use Contraceptives and Birth Control
Progesterone pill and Norplant prevent LH surge No ovulation / no fertilization

The diaphragm is a shallow cap made of soft, latex rubber that prevents pregnancy by creating a barrier over the cervix and holding spermicide against it.

An IUD is a small, T-shaped device that contains copper or a hormone to avert pregnancy that is inserted into a woman’s uterus. Depending on the type of IUD used, it works by interfering with sperm and egg migration, fertilization and/or implantation by irritating the uterine lining.
Common-use Contraceptives and Birth Control
Condoms- prevent fertilization

Latex condoms can only be used with water based lubricants, not oil based lubricants such as Vaseline or cold cream as they break down the latex.

Polyurethane condoms are made out a type of plastic and both oil and water based lubricants can be used with them.

The only forms of condoms that can both help to stop the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as HIV and prevent pregnancy
Skin condoms are made from a natural membrane. Due to the size of the pores in natural skin condoms, they are not recommended for the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).
4 Classes of Tissue
Epithelial (form follows function)

* Squamous (looks like tile)
* Cubadal
* Columar

Connective
*Adipose
*Cartlage
* Bone
*Blood

Muscle
* Skeletal
* Smooth
* Cardia

Nervous
Squamous
* Function is diffusion
* Found in lungs
* Diffusion of Nutrients and Waste
Cubodia
*Square in Shape, Tightly packed
* Found in Kidney
*Function is absorbtion and secretion.
Columnar
Taller than wide (Finger like projects on the side)

* Nucleous found at bottom
* Function is insulation and stores energy
* Found on heels anywhere you need cushion
Cartlage
Funtion Firm but flexible support.

Looks like two ghost eyes(They are hard to see try picture mouth with teeth
Found in ear, nose and tracihe.
bone
Looks like a tree trunk
Function in support
Found in skeletial
Blood
Liquid Matrix
3 Types of Blood Cells
*Red - Concaved in ctr, no nucleous
* White - multi lobed, larger than red
* Platlets
Muscle Tissue
3 Types
Skeletal - has strips, 1 fiber multinucleouas (looks like teeth are there)ex. Diaphram made of skeleton

Smooth

Cardiac - ex heart, has strips and slits dark lines are intercalated disks, its the form of communication

Desmosones - ties the fibers together.
Smooth Muscle
Located all over your body but around your intestines
Involuntary movement
They develop each other and form a sheet.
Nervous Tissue
Looks like a triangle shape, Neron has a cell body

* an axiom the probagates your action potential
Fd in the brain and spinal cord.
Alveoli
found in the lung it enhances diffusion
Villi
in small intestines, increades sa/vol you would find smooth muscle that lines the intestines
Liver
Filters blood
Blood flows twoard center of liver
Acts like a perculator
Kidney
Cortex, Medulla (They will look different on the tissue)
Different Types of Systems
Arteries (anything that takes blook away from the heart)

Arterioles - Pressure regulators

Veins - Volumn regulator

Capillaries - Functional unit
Heart Sounds
LUPP - Systole

Dupp - Diastole
Red Blood Cells Stain
Pink on a slide, no nucleous
White Blood Cells
Leukocytes

Granula white blood cells fight bacteria.
Monocytes
Larg Cells, Large Nucleous