Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/56

Click to flip

56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
teleostomi
mouth in terminal position, narrow-based braincase, three otoliths in ear
osteichthyes
air sac (lungs/swimbladder); dermal bone in head & girdles; endochondral bone, lepidotrichs in paired fins, jaws with dentary, premax and maxillary
actinopertygii
ray finned fishes; sister group to sarcops; most speciose vert clade; lepidotrichia (rays) support paired fins; ossified endoskeleton; bony operculum; air sacs; usu. ctenoid or cycloid scales (ganoid in some primitive gps)
air sacs
neutral buoyancy, found in osteichthyes (sarcops, actinops); dorsal to gut
chondrostei
(actinopterygii)
bichirs, sturgeons, ganoid scales
Paddlefish in NA, China = plankton feeders
sturgeons in NA, Russia - bottom feeders, roe
roe
fish eggs
ganoid scales
found in chondrostei
bone + dentin + ganoin
neopterygii
(actinopterygii)
gars (semionotiformes)
bowfin (amiiformes)
teleosts (teleostei) marine and freshwater
alligator gar
second largest fish in US
teleostei
anglerfish, seahorse, flounder, catfish, perch
sarcopterygii
fleshy finned fishes;
most extinct;
coelacanthimorpha, dipnoi, stgocephali
synapomaorphies of sarcopterygii
paired fins anchored to muscle extensions (fleshy w/skeletal support)
includes tetrapods with limbs
SARCOP FIN BONES HOMOLOGOUS TO TETRAPOD LIMBS
paired internal nares (choanae)
cosmoid scales
choanae
paired internal nares, sarcopterygii
cosmoid scales
2 layers of bone: dentin and enameloid
sarcopterygii
coelacanthimorpha
coelacanth was extinct for 80MY, 200 specimen in w. Indian ocean
dipnoi
lungfishes; australian lungfishes use lungs when O2=low;
So. Am. and African lungfishes mut have air
aestivation behavior
mucus cocoon, hypometabolism;
for as long as 4mo. to 2yrs. Can metabolize muscle tissue
Fish a major players in vert story. Why?
1.first bone
2.first jaws
3.first vertebrate
4.paired fins, then bony/fleshy paired fins
5.paired internal nares
6.air sacs/lungs
7.tetrapod story is a continuation of fish story
synapomorphies of stegocephali
-paired jointed muscular limbs with digits and bones homologous to proximal limb bones
-loss of paired fin rays
-zygapohphyses link neural arches
-sacrum anchors vert to pelv. girdle
-loss of attachment of pectoral girdle to skull
Stegocephali: loss of pelvic girdle attachment to ______?
skull
amphibs vs reptiles
-most primitive tetrapods = amphibs
-reptiles = 2nd most primitive
vert # increase, dermal bones in pectoral girdle
amphibians
-"two lives"
-loss of rib cage (except salamanders)
-no scales
-no claws
-moist skin, glandular
-most with lungs, gas exchange across membranes
anamniote
-An animal that does not develop an amnion during its embryonic stage
-amphib
-3 clades:
`gymnophiona: caecilians
`caudata: salamanders/newts
`salientia: frogs and toads
gymnophiona
-caecilians
-tropical, burrowing, freshwater
-no limbs/girdles
-insect/worm diet = carnivorous
-skin folds give ring-link appearance
-all adults with lungs
-eyes may be covered with skin
-chemosensory tentacle in groove bw eye and nostril
-males with phallodeum (for fert)
phallodeum
-caecilian organ of intromission;
-inserted into female cloaca for 2-3 hrs
-analogous
caudata
-salamanders and newts
-larval stage in h2o
-newts: dry skin when move to land. "eft" stage
-dults are semiterrestrial (always moist)
-paired limbs (caecilians have none)
-Larvae is usually gilled
`some are perennibranchiate: continuously gilled) like mudpuppies and sirens
-external fertalization i some: no organ of intromission
-uses spermatophore
spermatophore
-internal fert in salamanders
-cap, stalk, base, pedistal
-female picks it up with cloaca
anura/salientia
-elongate hindlimbs
-urostyle
-radioulna and tibiofibula
-elongate metatarsels (lever system)
-loss of thumb
-adults with immature diet
perennibranchiate
continuously gilled
semiterrestrial
always moist
urostyle
9 presacral and 3-4 postsacral vertebrae
toads vs frogs
-toads: shorter hindlimbs, hop, bumpy skin texture, dry
-frogs: long hindlimbs, leap, smooth and wet
sexual system in frogs
`f chooses m
`chorus of m's
`f enters chorus
`f approach, contact, amplexus, oviposition
`Females decisions
-right species?
-which male?
-female leaves for a year, male finds another female
amplexus
frog sex grip
oviposition
laying and placement of eggs
fertilization in frogs
external except for the tailed frog
vocalizations
-key to sex
-eggs are finite
-coding variables
`freq (pitch, wavelength)
`temporal patterning (pulse)
`amplitude (E level)
`usually males vocalize
-Breedingseason, near h2o
-sometimes f calls when m's aren't calling
Types of vocalizations
1. Advertisement call: "i'm a male of x species and I'm ready to mate"
`repro status
`species, gender ID
`mate attraction
`territorial defense
2. Aggessive calls : "I'm ready to fight"
3. Release calls: "I'm a dude!"
4. Distress calls: "Eek!"
`Reduces risk of predation
female frog chooes mate by:
-freq of male call (deeper = better)
-longevity
-call length
Deep croak hypothesis
Bigger males have deeper voices, lower pitch. Also a sign of longevity.
Multi-note calls
-coqui; freq doesn't change
`A note: "co" = aggressive calls for males
`B note: "qui" = call for females
-Often call over others.
-Mating call isnt't heard
Citropa
`A note is for ladies
`B note is aggressive
extant tetrapoda
-keratinized layer of skin
-parathyroid (parathormone; increases Ca; "fish" with corpuscles of Stannius and hypocalcin)
`Calcitonin decreases blood Ca (C cells in thyroid vsultimobranchial bodies)
-harderian gland (eye) and oral glands
-vomeronasal organ
-loss of internal gills
parathormone
-from parathyroid
-Ca metabolism in fish
-increases blood Ca levels
"fish" with hypocalcin in Corpuscles of Stannius
hypocalcin
-in "fish" Corpuscles of Stannius
Calcitonin
-Blood Ca regulator
-lowers blood Ca in fish and tetrapods
-from thyroid (or cells witin C cells) vs ultimobranchial bodies
Harderian gland
keeps eye moist, tetrapod synapomorphy
oral glands
to wet foo, not needed in fish
VNO
accessory olfaction; vomeronasal organs
-"smell" in snakes
synapomorphy
A shared, derived character. Groups erected on synapomorphies are monophyletic.
symplesiomorphy
A shared, primitive character. Groups erected on symplesiomorphies are paraphyletic.
Amniotes
-four extraembryonic "membranes"
-amnion, chorion, allantois, yolk sac
-cell layers grow out of embryo and membranes usually enclosed in leathery or calcareous shell
-significance? allows verts to reproduce on land = no longer tied to h2o
amnion
surrounds embryo, holds a fluid to protect fromshock and provide moisture
allantois
hindgut outgrowth; disposal sac for N waste, respiratory surface
chorion
enclosing membrane (outermost)
chorioallantoic membrane
very vascular, porous for O2 diffusion
yolk sac
sheet of cells enclosing yolk. lies within chorion. yolk = food (enzymes digest proteins, fat in gut)