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56 Cards in this Set

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A shield volcano is a:
Large volcanic cone with gently dipping flanks constructed by numerous passive eruptions of basalt lava flows.
The largest volcano in the Solar System is on the planet Mars. The volcano is:
Olympus Mons
A Love wave has a vibration direction that is:
perpendicular to the direction in which the wave is travelling and parallel to Earth's surface (i.e., horizontally polarized).
Which is an example of a scoria cone?
Capulin, New Mexico
Crater Lake, Oregon, is a:
caldera on a stratovolcano
In the annual global energy budget of earthquakes, the approximately 3 million earthquakes per year that are of less than M3 release:
less energy than the one earthquake per year that is M8 or larger.
Volcanic activity in the western US is related to:
a hotspot.
B) subduction.
C) continental rifting.
D) all of A) to C).
ALL OF A TO C
The point on the Earth's surface directly above where a fault plane ruptures and an earthquake occurs is termed the _________ of the earthquake.
epicenter
Volcanoes with a short repose time (years to tens of years) typically have larger eruptions (higher VEI) than volcanoes with a long repose time (hundreds to thousands of years).
False
A strong-motion seismograph is designed to operate
as an event recorder that only starts to record when ground motion begins.
An eruption that produces frequent small explosions as a result of sporadic gas release from basalt lava is termed:
Strombolian.
Worldwide, approximately how many volcanoes erupt in any given year?
60
A volcano with a repose time of 15,000 years last erupted 11,000 years ago. This volcano would be characterized as:
Dormant.
On the VEI scale, a VEI 4 eruption is _____ times larger than a VEI 2 eruption.
100
On a particular strike-slip fault the plates in contact across the fault plane have a relative velocity of 4 centimetres per year and the displacement on the fault in each earthquake is 3 metres. Therefore, the recurrence interval for earthquakes on the fault is _____ years.
75
In historic time there has only been one eruption of VEI 7. Which eruption?
Tambora, 1815
The mass magnitude scale for volcanic eruptions
is a quantitative scale.
B) is an open-ended scale.
C) correctly characterizes the size of passive basalt eruptions
E
ALL of A-C
The order (first to last) in which a seismograph station will detect seismic waves from an earthquake is:
P, S, LQ, LR
Collapse earthquakes can result from both natural and unnatural (i.e., human caused) events.
True
A fault occurs where rock behaves as a(n) _________ material.
elastic-brittle
The National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) rapidly and accurately locates (epicenter, time of occurrence, focal depth) worldwide earthquakes based on the:
P-wave arrival time for many seismograph stations.
At mid-ocean ridge plate boundaries faulting is characteristically of the _________ type.
normal
At the present time, the smallest recordable earthquakes are of magnitude ____.
-2 to -3
Rock has variable strength with different stresses. The strength of rock, from weakest (least force to break) to strongest (most force to break), with stress is in the order:
Extension; shearing; compression
The strength of rock under different stresses (previous question) means that the largest earthquakes occur at:
Subduction zones.
The focal mechanism (beach-ball diagram) for an earthquake is determined from the:
P-wave polarity at many seismograph stations.
Historically, the volcanic eruptions that resulted in the largest numbers of fatalities were those that produced:
pyroplastic flows
A pendulum is an example of a ___________ seismograph.
horizontal
For a seismograph station with three broadband seismographs recording the vertical ground motion (Z component), the N-S horizontal ground motion (the N component), and the E-W horizontal ground motion (the E component), S-waves will show up best on the:
E and N components
Over the last few years in Greenland there has been:
an increase in the number of glacial earthquakes each successive year
The San Andreas fault is a _________ fault.
right-lateral strike-slip
With increasing distance of seismic stations from the epicenter of an earthquake, the difference between the time of arrival of the P-wave and of the S-wave (the S – P time):
increases
The Mercalli Intensity scale is a:
qualitative scale that ranges from intensity I to intensity XII.
VEI 8 "mega-eruptions" from "supervolcanoes" have a significant impact on global climate, causing climate warming in the years following the eruption.
False
During a large earthquake in a particular area, the most structural damage will be done to buildings constructed on:
mud
Volcanic eruptions most commonly are triggered by:
vesculiation in the magma chamber
The largest earthquake ever recorded was the ___________ earthquake.
1960 Chile
In terms of earthquake magnitude
theoretically there is no maximum possible magnitude, but practically the maximum possible magnitude is about 10.
The Moment Magnitude scale has replaced the Richter magnitude scale because the Richter scale overestimates the size of earthquakes that are of equal to or greater than magnitude 7.3.
False
With increasing distance from the epicenter of an earthquake:
the Mercalli intensity decreases, the magnitude is constant
S-waves travel through:
only solids
Compared to a M2 earthquake, a M4 earthquake releases ______ times as much energy.
900
Subduction zone earthquakes occur at focal depths of _____ km.
0-700
Stratovolcanoes are characteristic of which geological setting on Earth?
subduction zones
Mt. Rainier is considered to be the most dangerous volcano in the United States. This is because:
In the past, Mt. Rainier has frequently produced extremely large lahars (many not associated with an eruption) that have affected the area of present day Tacoma-Seattle.
The San Andreas fault is a _________ fault.
right-lateral strike-slip
With increasing distance of seismic stations from the epicenter of an earthquake, the difference between the time of arrival of the P-wave and of the S-wave (the S – P time):
increases
The Mercalli Intensity scale is a:
qualitative scale that ranges from intensity I to intensity XII.
VEI 8 "mega-eruptions" from "supervolcanoes" have a significant impact on global climate, causing climate warming in the years following the eruption.
False
During a large earthquake in a particular area, the most structural damage will be done to buildings constructed on:
mud
Volcanic eruptions most commonly are triggered by:
vesculiation in the magma chamber
The largest earthquake ever recorded was the ___________ earthquake.
1960 Chile
In terms of earthquake magnitude
theoretically there is no maximum possible magnitude, but practically the maximum possible magnitude is about 10.
The Moment Magnitude scale has replaced the Richter magnitude scale because the Richter scale overestimates the size of earthquakes that are of equal to or greater than magnitude 7.3.
False
With increasing distance from the epicenter of an earthquake:
the Mercalli intensity decreases, the magnitude is constant
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