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13 Cards in this Set

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What chemicals are produced by a sauerkraut fermentation that add to the flavor?
Diacetyl, lactic acid, mannitol, ethyl butyrate, isoamyl acetate
How much salt is added to cabbage for sauerkraut and what are its three functions? What is the seasonal effect?
2.25-3% salt is used for:
1) Osmosis -- salt draws sugars and H20 out of cabbage to create ideal environment for growth

2) Preservative: modulates what types of microbes can grow

3) Flavor

Sauerkraut (indiginous method) works best in fall, when cabbage is freshly harvested.
What are the main bacteria in Kimchi and Sauerkraut fermentations and what are their functions?
Leuconostoc mesenteroides - starts fermentation via lactic acid cycle

Lactobacillus plantarum - finishes fermentaiton, most important because it drops the pH so other microbes cannot grow

Lactococcus brevis and Pediococcus penosaceous are also involved
What are the major differences between Kimchi and Sauerkraut?
Ingredients: Kimchi uses a variety of different cabbage types

Salt Concentration: Kimchi often has a higher salt concentration because it offers a better flavor. Also, some have perception that it is safer

Temperature: The fermentation is stopped before completion in Kimchi by refridgeration , Sauerkraut finishes fermentation

pH: Over 4 for Kimchi, 3 or below for Sauerkraut
What are signs of spoilage or problems with fermentation of sauerkraut?
Dark (air, high salt, high temp), pink (yeasts), or off flavors (conditions, or other microbes) are signs of spoilage. Bacteriophages can attack healthy fermentation microbes delaying or inhibiting fermentation
How are RAPD and RFLP used in assessing infection of bacteria?
RAPD is used to type the type of bacteriophage and RFLP is used to prove that the same virus is infecting all bacteria. Can also be used to fingerprint organism. RAPD is more useful if virus is not know, RFLP is virus is suspected, known or well investigated
How can you tell fermented pickles from fresh packed or refrigerated ones?
sharper flavor, process takes 1-3 months. Others have short processing times and are not fermented
What instrument is used to prepare brine? What is the concentration of salt used? Why can't dry salt be added to the cucumbers?
A salometer is used to measure salt concentration. It is basically a hydrometer calibrated for salt. 1˚ = 0.26% salt. Scale is 1-100˚S

Dry salt cannot be added because of smaller surface area of pickles. Pickle brine is usually 20-30˚S
How are pickles fermented? What are the main cultures that are used? What is done post-fermentation?
Fermented in buckets with brine. Main bacteria are Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus brevis, L. plantarum.

Most producers do ferm. the indiginous way, without using starter cultures. The brine usually has coliforms and LAB, and then through the ferm, LAB and yeasts are left.

At post-ferm, when the pH is 3.5, and bubbling has subsided, N purging occurs, where N is bubbled from the bottom to push any remaining O2 our of the solution.
What are spoilage issues with pickles?
Bloater formation - when O2 causes airspace in pickles, no affect to taste

Loss of Texture: Mainly due to producers reusing brine, which may contain enzymes from previous batches that break down pectinase and take away crispness

Unclean flavors and odors
How are olives Prepared for Fermentation?
Prepared in a lye solution of 0.9-1.25 NaOH, which breaks down oleuropein, a bitter compound

Washed placed in brine at 16-20˚C
Fermentation follows preparation in the brine and lye. After Fermentation what are post-processing steps?
Addition of olive oil to olives. Provides protection against yeast and is asthetically pleasing.
What are spoilage problems with olive fermentation?
Softening, Fish eye defects due to coliforms, butryic acid fermentation, zapatera spoilage (pH > 4, odor, cloistridia and proionbacteria)