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97 Cards in this Set

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Proximal to the arch, the first branches of the ascending aorta are the
coronary arteries
__ divides into the right common carotid and subclavian arties
innominate/ brachiocephalic
the three branches of the aortic arch in order are
innominate/ brachiocephalic, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery
___ runs laterally to outer border of 1st rib becoming the axillary artery. Some branches include vertebral, thyrocervical, costocervical
subclavian artery
____ after giving off several branches, becomes the brachial artery
axillary a
__ branches into the radial and ulnar arteries at the inner aspect of the elbow, (also known as he anticubital fossa)
brachial a
__ travels down lateral side of forearm into hand, branching to form the superficial palmar arch and terminates in the deep palmar arch by joining deep branch of the ulnar artery
radial a
__ travels down medial side of forearm into hand, branching to form deep palmar arch and terminates in the superficial palmar arch
ulnar a
__ is the predominate source of blood flow in the hand
ulnar a
____ includes the distal portion of the ulnar artery and a branch of the radial artery
superficial palmar (volar) arch
__ includes branch of ulnar artery and distal portion of the radial artery
deep palmar volar arch
digital arteries arise from the ___ and extend into the fingers dividing into lateral and medial branches
palmar arches
the visceral branches of the abdominal aorta include
celiac artery, sma, renal arteries, ima
___ supplies stomach, liver, pancreas,duodenum, spleen. branchesinto left gastric, splenic, and common hepatic arteries
celiac artery
____ supplies the small intestine, cecum, parts of colon. located about 1cm below celiac a
sma
___ supply blood to the kidneys, suprarenal glands, ureters.
renal arteries
___ renal arteries not uncommon bilaterally
multiple
in transverse, a landmark for locating the left renal a is the ______
the left renal vein which crosses the aorta anteriorly, the artery being just posterior
___ supplies transverse, descending colon and part of rectum. arises about 3-4cm above bif. can act as a collateral connection
IMA
both ___ are the most distal branches of the aorta carrying blood to the pelvis, abdominal and lower limbs
common iliac arteries
the common iliac artery divides into ___ and ___
internal iliac artery (hypogastric) and external iliac artery
___ travels along medial side of psoas major muscle
external iliac artery
after the external iliac artery passes underneath the inguinal ligament it becomes the ___
common femoral artery
__ divides into the sfa and the deep femoral artery
common femoral artery
__ runs the length of the thigh, passing through an opening in the tendon of the adductor (hunters canal). and enters the popliteal fossa behind the knee
superficial femoral artery
___ is a large branch arises about 5cm from the inguinal ligament on the lateral side and can act as a collateral connection
deep femoral (profunda femoris) artery
___ consists of deep plantar artery (branch of DPA) and the lateral plantar arteru (branch of the PTA) which unites with the deep plantar artery
plantar arch
___ and __ distribute blood to the digits in the foot
plantar and dorsal
___ passes toward fibula traveling down medail side of that bone to supply structures of the lateral side of leg/ foot
peroneal artery
____ extends obliquely down posterior / medial side of the leg
PTA
___ trunk is the short segment between ATA branch ad branches of PTA and peroneal arteries
tibioperoneal trunk
the first branch off distal popliteal artery
anterior tibial artery
____ transport gases nutrients and other essential substances to the capillaries.
arteries
____ are considered resistance vessels and assist with regulating blood flow though contraction and relaxation
arterioles
____ is where nutrients and waste products are exchanged between the tissue and blood
capillaries
___ layer is thin, consisting of a surface layer of smooth endothelium, base membrane and connective tissue
tunica intima/ inner layer (artery)
____ layer is thicker composed of smooth muscle and connective tissue largely of the elastic type
tunica media/ intermediate (artery)
____ layer is somewhat thinner than media contains fibrous connective tissue and some muscle fibers
tunica externa/ outer layer (adventitia) artery wall
As a rule, the ___ layer contains the vasa vasorum, tiny vessels that carry blood to the walls of the larger arteries
adventitial layer outer layer
___ set into oscillation by each beat of the heart
multi-branched elastic conduit
each beat pumps about __ of blood into the aorta causing a blood pressure pulse
70 milliliters
Order of cardis contration:
1. 2. 3.
pressure in the left ventricle rises rapidly then left ventricle pressure exceeds that in the aorta and finally the aortic valve opens, blood is ejected causing the blood pressure to rise
Increased heart rate delivers an ___ blood volume
increased
___ plays an important role in the movement of blood throughout the vascular system
patients cardiac status
the heart pump generates the pressure to move the blood resulting in a ____ that travels rapidly throughout the system, demonstrationing a gradual transformation as it travels distally
pressure wave ( energy wave)
pumping acrion of heart results in high volume of blood in arteries to maintain a ___ between the arteries and veins
high pressure gradient
___ governs the amount of blood that enters the arterial system; arterial pressure and total___ determines the amount that leaves it
cardiac output
peripheral resistance
each cardiac contraction __ the arteries ehich serve as reservoirs to store some blood volume and potential energy supplied th the system
distends
___ is greater at the heart, gradually decreasing as the blood moves further away. this __ difference is necessary to maintain blood flow
pressure
movement of any fluid medium between two points requires two things
apathway along which the fluid can flow and a difference in energy levels (pressure difference)
The amount of blood flow depends on
the energy difference (includes losses resulting from fluid movement) and any resistance ehich tends to oppose such movement
lower resistance = ___ flow rate
higher
higher resistance = __ flow rate
lower
the total energy contained in oving fluid is the sum of __, __, and ___ energies
pressure (potential) energy, kinetic energy and gravitational energy
___ is stored energy and is the major form of energy for circulation of blood; expressed in mmHg
pressure (potential) energy
__ is small for circulationgblood; expressed in terms of fluid density and it =s velocity measurements
kinetic energy
___ is equivalent to the weight of the column of blood extending from the heart to level where pressureis measured
gravitational energy or hydrostatic pressure HP
there is a 0mmHg against the arteries and veins at the ankle when a patient is supine but when standing the the mmHg is at about ___
100mmHg hydrostatic pressure
an ____ is needed to move blood from one point to another. greater amount of this cause greater amoutn of flow
energy gradient
___ relates to the tendency of a fluid to resist changes in its velocity ( body at rest tends to stay at rest)
inertia
as the blood moves farther out to the perphery, energy is dissipated largely in the form of ___
heat
energy is continually restored by what action?
pumping of the heart
movement of fluid is dependent on ___
physical properties of the fluid and what its moving through
___ predicts when fluid becomes unstable
reynolds number
diminishing vessel size increases ____ forces and ___ ___ losses
frictional
heat energy
___ consists of layers of fluid particles moving against one another
laminar flow
faster moving flow is seen in the ___; stationary layer remains at the ___. laminar flow is considered ___ flow
center
wall
stable
__ flow is likely seen at vessel origin
plug
___ profile of laminar flow is usually seen downstream
parabolic
although viscosity and vessel length have an effect on resistance, a change in ____ has a more dramatic effect
vessel diameter
internal friction within a fluid is measured by its ___
viscosity
resistance is ___ proportional to viscosity and vessel length
directly
resistance is ___ proportional to the vessel diameter
inversely
___energy loss is due to increased friction between molecules and layers which ultimately causes energy loss
viscous
___ losses occur with deviations from laminar flow due to changes in direction and or velocity
inertial (biggest loss of energy)
____ defines relationship between: pressure, volume flow, resistance
poiseuille's equation q=p/r
poiseuille's equation helps answer the question of how much fluid moves througha vessel. what is the equation _=_/_
Q=P/R
Q=volume flow
P=pressure
R=resistance
___ change has most dramatic effect on resistance
diameter
radius of a vessel is ____ proportional to volume flow
directly
total energy contained in moving fluid is the sum of __,__ and ___ energies
pressure kinetic gravitational
velocity and pressure are ___ proportional
inversely
______ occur because of a geometry change with or without intra-luminal disease; and because of curves
pressure gradients flow separations
____ flow of a continuous nature feeding dilated vascular bed
low resistance flow
what are some examples of low resistance arteries
ica vertebral renal celiac splenic hepatic
_____ flow of a pulsatile nature. Between incident pulses, hydraulic reflections travel back up the vessel from the periphery producing flow reversals in the vascular compartment
high resistance flow
what are some examples of a high resistance vessel
eca subclavian aorta iliac extremity arteries fasting sma
the ___ of a high resistant signal may disappear distal to a stenosis because of decreased peripheral resistance, secondary to ischemia
reversal component
doppler flow ___ to a significant stenosis is lower resistant. In addition its more rounded in appearance and is weaker in strength
distal
a normally high resistant (biphasic or triphasic) signal may become _____ as it approaches the signififcant stenosis and/or arterial obstruction
monophasic
doppler flow ___ to a significant stenosis is higher resistant in quality (could have no diastole or minimal diastole )
proximal
___ is probably best single vasodilator of resistancevessels within skeletal muscle
exercise
___ - pain in muscle usually occuring during exercise; subsides with rest.
results from inadequate blood supply to muscle.
discomfort is predictable and subsides within minutes after exercise.
level of disease usually proximal to location of symptoms.
claudication
What are the signs and symptoms of chronic occlusive disease
claudication, ischemic rest pain, and tissue loss
____- a more severe symptom of diminished blood flow. occurs when limb not dependant;
BP decreased (such as when sleeping)
ischemic rest pain
___- due to deficient or absent blood supply to tissue
tissue loss necrosis or death of tissue
symptoms include the 6P's pain, pallor, pulselessness, paresthesia, paralysis, polar. May result from thrombus, ebolism or trauma.
acute arterial ocllusion
____- a condition that exists when symptoms intermittent digital ischemia occur in response to cold exposure or emotional stress. Changes in skin color may include pallor, cyanosis or rubor
raynauds phenomenon