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173 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nervous System
master controlling and communicating system ; all thoughts, action, and emotions
Nervous System Functions
1.Uses sensory receptors to monitor changes
2.Process and interpret the sensory input and make decisions
3.Effects a response by activating a muscle or a gland
Stimuli
the change
Sensory Input
the gathered information
Integration
decision making
Motor output
muscle response
Uses sensory receptors to monitor changes
Stimuli
Sensory Input:
Process and interpret the sensory input and make decisions
Integration
Effects a response by activating a muscle or a gland
Motor output
ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
divided by its structures or activities
Structural Classification (2 types)
1.Central Nervous System (CNS)
2.Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Central Nervous System (CNS)
a. includes the
b. located in the
c. interprets
a.brain and spinal cord
b.dorsal body cavity
c.incoming sensory and put out instructions
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
a. located
b.consists of _____ & ______ nerves
c. is a big
a.outside of the CNS
communication line
cranial nerves
carry impulses to and from the brain
spinal nerves
carry impulses to and from spinal cord
PNS Funcitonal Classification
1.based on the
2.has ___ divisions
1.Peripheral Nervous System
2. 2
PNS Sensory (afferent)
nerve fibers take impulses to the CNS from the sensory receptors
PNS somatic sensory fibers
skin and skeletal muscles
PNS visceral sensory fibers (_________)
(afferents)
visceral organs
PNS Motor (________)
(efferent)
carries impulse from the CNS to effector organ
somatic nervous system (_______ n.s.
(voluntary N.S.)
consciously, voluntarily controls skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system (_______ n.s.)
(involuntary N.S.) autonomic, involuntary
NERVOUS TISSUE
STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
NERVOUS TISSUE
-Neuroglia
supporting cells lumped together; support, insulate, and protect neurons; nicknamed “glia”
NERVOUS TISSUE
-astrocyte
a.
b.
c.
a.star-shaped
b.half of all neurologlia
c.found between capillaries and neurons
iv. help control chemical environment in brain
NERVOUS TISSUE
-microglia:
a.
b.
c.
a. spiderlike
b. phagocytosis – eat dead brain cells
c. connect neurons only
NERVOUS TISSUE
-ependymal cells:
a.
b.
a. line cavities of the brain and spinal cord
b. help to circulate cerebrospinal fluid
NERVOUS TISSUE
-oligodendrocytes:
a.
b.
a. wrap around nerve fibers
b. produce fat to insulate (myelin sheath)
NERVOUS TISSUE
Differences to Neurons
a.
b.
a. Cannot transmit nerve impulses
b. Can always divide
Can brain tumors (gliomas) which are made of neuroglia cells, keep dividing?
Yes- they are supporting cell nervous tissue
PNS Supporting Cells
a. Schwann cell
b. Satellite cell
Schwann cell
a.
b.
a. Covers nerve fiber
b. Makes myelin sheath
Satellite cell
a.
b.
a. Protect and cushion
b. Covers the cell body
Neuron or “Nerve Cell”
specialized to transmit messages from one body part to another
Neuron or “Nerve Cell” Anatomy:
a.Cell body:
b.Processes:
a. has nucleus, metabolic center
b. extend from the cell body
Dendrite
conduct current to the cell body
Axon
conduct current away from the cell body
axonal terminal
the end where chemicals are released
neurotransmitter
the chemical released
synaptic cleft
the space between the neurons
synapse
the joining of the cleft
myelin
white fat that covers the nerve fiber, increases nerve impulse rate
Schwann Cell
a supporting cell that wraps around an axon
Myelin sheath
tight coil of membranes that encloses the axon
Neurilemma
outermost part; outside of the myelin sheath
Nodes of Ranvier
gap between the Schwann cells
Multiple Sclerosis
myelin sheath is destroyed therefore control is lost
Neuron Classification (function and structure
i. Based on the direction the nerve impulse travels to the CNS
Sensory (afferent)
1.
2.
3.
1. from sensory receptor > CNS
2. tells us what goes on in and out of the body
3. receptors pick up information
Neuron Classification
Proprioceptors =
Sensory (afferent)
Proprioceptors
stretch, muscle, tendon
Motor (efferent)
1.
2.
1. nerve impulses from the CNS > viscera or muscle
2. causes the reaction
Association Neurons(interneurons)
1.
1. connect sensory and motor neurons
Neuron Classification
Functional:(3)
1.Sensory (afferent)
2.Motor (efferent)
3.Association Neurons(interneurons)
Neuron Classification
Structural:(3)
1.Multipolar neuron
2.Bipolar neuron
3.Unipolar neuron
Neuron Classification
Structural Based on:
the number of processes
Multipolar neuron
1.
2.
1.several processes
2.most common
Bipolar neuron
1.
2.
3.
1. 2 processes
2. 1 axon and 1 dendrite
3. rare; only in the eye and the ear
Unipolar neuron
1. 1 process
2. very short process
Neuron Physiology
2 major functions
1. Irritability
2. Conductivity
Irritability
ability to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse
Conductivity
ability to transmit impulses to other neurons, muscles, or glands
Nerve Impulse Steps
a.Polarized or “Resting Stage"
b.Depolarization
c.Action Potential
d.Repolarization
Polarized or “Resting Stage”
Fewer + ions inside the cell than outside of the cell
Depolarization
Na+ ions from the outside diffuse inside to the neuron and therefore the inside now has more + ions
Action Potential
The depolarization activates the neuron to transmit a nerve impulse down the length of the axon
Repolarization
K+ ions now move out of the cell, causing the inside to become negative again, returning to the resting stage
Reflex
rapid, predictable and involuntary response to a stimuli
Reflex arc
the path a reflex takes
Autonomic reflex
1.regulates:
(4) Examples:
1.regulates smooth muscle, heart, and glands
EX:saliva, eye pupils, digestion, blood pressure
Somatic reflex
all reflexes that stimulate the skeletal muscles
2 types of reflexes
1.Autonomic reflex
2.Somatic reflex
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
3 Major components
Neural tube
Central canal
Ventricles
Neural tube
in the embryo, the first sign of the CNS development
Neural tube:
anterior end=
Where the brain forms
Neural tube:
posterior end=
Where the spinal cord forms
Central canal
continues from the brain to the spinal cord; enlarged into 4 regions of the brain
Ventricles=
Known as:
four regions of the brain
1.Cerebral Hemispheres
2.Diencephalon or “interbrain”
3.Brain Stem
4.Cerebellum
Cerebral Hemispheres
Larger than all of the other 3 regions put together
Gyri
elevated ridges
Sulci
shallow grooves between gyri
Fissures
deeper grooves
Parietal lobe
1.somatic sensory area
2.pain, cold, touch, taste, speech
Occipital lobe
visual area
Temporal lobe
olfactory, auditory, memory
Frontal lobe
1.primary motor area
2.face, mouth, hands
Broca’s area
speech, in left hemisphere
Gray matter
outside tissue (cerebral cortex)
White matter
deep tissue
Corpus callosum
connects the right and left hemispheres
Basal nuclei
islands of gray matter buried into deep white matter
Basal nuclei
regulate voluntary motor control
Huntington’s Chorea
genetic disorder in which you cannot control muscles; jerky movements; basal nuclei problem
Parkinson’s Disease
can’t get muscles to move; hand tremors; missing dopamine neurotransmitter
Diencephalon or “interbrain”
Sits on top of the brain stem
Diencephalon or “interbrain”
3 major structures
1.thalamus
2.
3.
Diencephalon: Also known as the "_____-______"
interbrain
thalamus
can tell good and bad sensation
hypothalamus or “floor”:
1.regulates body temperature, water balance, and metabolism
2.limbic system or emotional drives
epithalamus or “roof”:
has choroids plexus which forms cerebrospinal fluid
Brain Stem
Path for ascending and descending tracts
Brain Stem
Made of reticular formation (gray matter)
Reticular activating system (RAS):
Awake/sleep cycle
Brain Stem 3 parts
1.Midbrain
2.Pons
3.Medulla Oblongata
Midbrain
bision and hearing
Pons
controls breathing
Medulla Oblongata
heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing, breathing, vomiting, and anger
Cerebellum
a.Has __ hemispheres
b.Controls ______ & ________
c.Damage will cause ______ or _______ _________.
a. 2
b. balance and equilibrium
c.ataxia, or clumsy movements
Meninges
connective tissue membranes that cover and protect the CNS
Meninges:3 types
a.dura mater
b.arachnoid mater
c.pia mater
Meninges:
dura mater
-outermost double layer
-surrounds brain
Meninges:
dura mater
-leathery in texture
-"tough or hard mother"
arachnoid mater
-middle layer
-web-like, similar to a spider web
pia mater
-innermost layer
-“gentle mother”
Meningitis
-Inflamed meninges
-Can spread to nervous tissue of the CNS
Encephalitis
Inflamed brain
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
a. watery broth
b. low in protein, high in vitamin C
c. formed from choroids plexuses
Lumbar Spinal Tap
CSF sample
Hydrocephalus:
1. water on the brain
2. CSF accumulates and a shunt is needed
Cerebral Edema
Swelling of the brain due to head blows
Contusion
Tissue destruction causing a coma
Concussion
Slight brain injury including dizziness, stars, brief unconsciousness
Cerebrovascular accidents
Also called “strokes”
Alzheimer’s Disease
-Also called dementia or mental deterioration
-Protein deposits and calcium
Cerebrovascular accidents
Third leading cause of death in the U.S.
Alzheimer’s Disease
Symptoms of memory loss, irritability, moodiness, confusion, and violence
Spinal Cord
a 17 inch long continuation of the brain stem
Spinal Cord
a two-way pathway to and from the brain
Spinal Cord
STARTS at:
ENDS at:
Start: foramen magnum
Ends: 1st or 2nd lumbar vertebrae
Spinal Cord
31 pair of spinal nerves
cauda equina
end of the spinal cord that is the collection of spinal nerves
gray matter
a. surrounds the central canal of the spinal cord
b. branches off on both sides and then surrounded by white matter
white matter
a. made of myelinated fibers
b. makes up remaining area of the spinal cord
quadriplegic
all four limbs are paralyzed
paraplegic
only legs are paralyzed
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
made of nerves and groups of neural cell bodies
nerve
a. a bundle of neuron fibers outside of the CNS
b. classified by the directions they carry an impulse
mixed nerve
1.carry sensory and motor fibers
2.all spinal nerves are mixed
afferent or sensory
nerve takes impulses to CNS
efferent or motor
1.carry only motor fiber
2.nerve takes impulses out of the CNS
Cranial Nerves
a.serve head and neck
b.most are mixed nerves
vagus nerves
only pair of cranial nerves that go to the thoracic cavity and abdomen
sensory nerves
optic, olfactory, and vestibulocochlear (hearing and equilibrium)
# of spinal nerves
31
plexuses
the networking of nerves
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
involuntary nervous system
Pupils dilate, arteries contract= examples of the:
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
a. motor subdivision of the PNS
b. controls body activities automatically
Sympathetic NS
Prepares body for energy spending, stress, and emergency
Parasympathetic NS
- Active under normal restful conditions
- Helps to restore body after stress
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic in a car accident:
1._______ will increase the heart rate and breathing rate
Sympathetic
Sympathetic vs.Parasympathetic in a car accident:
1._______ will lower the heart rate and breathing rate after trauma
Parasympathetic
Autonomic Transmitter Substances: Preganglionic: always ____ for the ______ and __________
-ACTH
-sympathetic
-parasympathetic
Autonomic Transmitter Substances: Postganglionic:
-Sympathetic > _________
-Parasympathetic >
-norepinephrine
-ACTH
ACTH has a ____ term effect because ________ decomposes it
-short
-cholinesterase
Norepinephrine
has prolonged effect
Can occur/cause Prebirth
Early infection
1.maternal rubella
2.smoking
3.radiation and drugs
maternal rubella
deafness, CNS damage
smoking
decrease oxygen in the blood and therefore a decrease in oxygen to the unborn child resulting in brain damage
radiation and drugs
various brain and CNS problems
Cerebral palsy
a. Lack of oxygen during birth
b. Largest cause of physical disabilities in children
Anecephaly
a. Cerebrum doesn’t develop
b. Can’t hear, see, or process sensory inputs
Spina bifida
Vertebrae do not form completely
Hypothalamus
regulates body temperature
No more _____ form after birth;______ ______grows and matures
-neurons
-nervous system
Brain
a. reaches maximum weight in early adulthood
b. neurons damage and die
c. unlimited neural pathways
Orthostatic hypotension
lightheadedness when standing up fast
Arteriosclerosis
artery circulation trouble
Senility
lack of oxygen causing forgetfulness and irritability
Boxers: “punch drunk”
slurred speech and tremors due to too much brain bouncing
With Aging the ________ nervous system becomes less and less efficient
Sympathetic
Autonomic Nerve Fibers
a.Mostly motor fibers
CNS--------->GANGLION
^ ^
1ST axon-->________ fiber
preganglionic
Autonomic Nerve Fibers
a.Mostly motor fibers
GANGLION------------>VISCERA
^ ^
2nd axon--->_______ fiber
postganglionic