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144 Cards in this Set

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studys body structures and relationships
anatomy
studies functions of the body (the insides)
physiology
body structure studied system by system
systemic anatomy
all the structures in a specific region
regional anatomy
study of internal structures as they relate to overlying skin surfaces
surface anatomy
studies the cells of the body
cytology
studies the tissues of the body
histology
studies the developmental changes tat occure before birth
embryology
studies structural changes caused by a disease
pathological anatomy
studies internal structures as visualized by x-ray machines or scanning prcedures
radiographic anatomy
studies the structure of biological molecules (chemical substances)
molecular biology
when the body is erect with feet slightly apart. AKA "standing at attention" but with palms facing forward and thumbs away from body
anatomical position
allow us to exxplain where one body structure is in relation to another.
directional terms
toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
superior (cranial)
away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
inferior (cuadal)
Toward or at the front of the body; infront of
ventral (anterior)
Toward or at the midline of the body; inner side of
medial
Toward the back of the body; behind
Dorsal (posterior)
away from the midline of the body; inner side of
lateral
between a more medial and more lateral structure
intermediate
closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
distal
toward or at the body surface
superficial (external)
away from the body; more internal
deep (internal)
terms used to deignate specific areas within the major body divisions.
regional terms
nose
nasal
mouth
oral
neck
cervical
point of shoulder
acromial
armpit
axillary
abdomen
abdominal
arm
brachial
front of elbow
antecubital
forearm
antebrachial
pelvis
pelvic
wrist
carpal
thumb
pollex
palm
palmar
fingers
digital
genital region
pubic
anterior knee
patellar
leg
crural
foot
pedal
ankle
tarsal
toes
digital
forehead
frontal
eye
orbital
cheek
buccal
chin
mental
breastbone
sternal
chest
thoracic
breast
mammary
umbilical
navel
hip
coxal
groin
inguinal
thigh
femoral
side of leg
fibular or peroneal
great toe
hallux
head
cephalic
hand
manus
ear
otic
back of head or base of skull
occipital
spinal column
vertebral
shoulder blade
scapular
arm
brachial
back
dorsum or dorsal
back of elbow
olecranal
loin
lumbar
between hips
sacral
butt
gluteal
between anus and external genitalia
perineal
thigh
femoral
back of knee
popliteal
calf
sural
heel
calcaneal
sole
plantar
makes up the main axis or our body: head, neck, and trunk
axial part
consists of the appendages (limbs) that are attatched to the bodys axis
appendicular part
when the body is cut along a flat surface
section
the flat surface the body is but along
plane
a vertical plane tht divides the body into right and left parts
sagittal plane
sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline
median/midsagittal plane
all sgittal planes offset from the midline
parasagittal plane
lie vertically and divide the body into anterior and posterior parts
frontal/coronal plane
divides the body into superior and inferior parts
transverse/horizontal planes
transverses is aka?
cross section
protects the nervous system organs
dorsal body cavity
in the skull; encases the brain
crainial
runs within the bony vertebral column; encloses the delicate spinal cord.
vertebral/spinal cavity
the 4 elements that comprimise about 96% of the body weight
hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen
substances taht cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods.
elements
combination of two or more atoms hld together by chemical bonds
molecule
two or more different kinds of atoms bind
compound
a homogeneous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids, or solids.
solutions.
substances that are present in the greatest amount
solvent
the dissolving medium; usually liquids
solvent
substances that are usually present in smaller amounts
solutes
___ is the bodys chief solvent
water
what combines/holds together other atoms
chemical bonds
occures whenever chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
chemical reaction
the number and kinds of reacting substances
reactants
chemical reactions written in symbolic form
chemical equation
chemical composition
product
a protein that acts as a biological catalyst to speed up a chemical reaction.
enzyme
explain the difference between primary active transport and secondary act. transp. Name a substance transported by each.
PA: uses ATP directly; Sodium Pump
SA: doesnt use ATP directly; Glucose
class of organic compounds that are not water soluable
lipids
ATP belongs to this class of organic compounds
Nucleic acids
glycogen belongs to this class of oc called
carbs
a substance that ___ is considered to be a chemical compound
has two or more differnt types of atoms
this reaction is an ex. of?
AB + CD--> AC + BD
exchange
the sodium/potassium pump transports __ our of the cell and __ into the cell. It is an active transport system because the concentration of __ is higher inside the cell and thecencentration of __ is higher outside the cell.
NA+
K+
K+
Na+
DNA is in the
nucleus
osmosis is a special type of?
simple diffusion
list te 4 elements that comprise about 96% of the body weight
H, O, C, N
list 4 monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, galactose, deoxyribose
list 4 disaccharides
maltose,lactose, sucrose, glucose
one polysaccharide
glycogen
explain the funct. of carbs in living things
represent 1-2% of cell mass; contain C, H, & O
describe the triglycerides
fatty acids: chains of C and H ataoms with an organic acid group
Glycerol: modified simple sugar
*found beneath sin where they insulate body tissue
describe the phopholipids
digylcerides with a phosphorus-containing group and 2 fatty acid chains. cells use this in building their membranes
decribe steroids
fat molecule made of 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings. fat soluable; contain little O. contains most impt. molecule: cholestorol.
list functions of proteins in living things
-enzymes, hemoglobin, contractile protein of muscles
-10-30% of cell mass
basic structural materical of body
-cell function -makes/holds C, O, H, N, S, & P.
molecules that are the building blocks of proteins
amino acid
nutrients inside body cells become involved in a variety of biochemical reactions
metabolism
a phosphate moecule is added to a molecule.
phophorylation
give an example of phophorylatio
ADP to ATP
metabolic reaction where ATP is produced
cell respiration
a protein that acts as a biological catalyst to speed up a chemical reaction
enzyme
oxygen required
aerobic
doesnt require O
anaerobic
energy-requiring building phase of metabolism where simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances
anabolism
living cells break down substances into simpler substances
catabolism
review the structure of ATP (terminal phosphate)
ATP supplies are replenished as glucose and other molecules are oxidied and bonded energy is released. same amt. of energy is liberated when ATPs terminal phosph. are cleaved off must be captured and used to reverse the action to reattatch phosphates.
descrie the 3 main stages involved in the process of obtaining energy from ingested food (aka___)
(nutrients)
(1)foods are turned into absorable forms by digestive enzymes in the GI Tract.
(2)nutrients are transported in blood to the body cells where theyre incorporated into molecules (anabolism) or broken down via glycosis and funneled to Krebs Cycle
(3)catablolic pathways of Krebs Cycle; takes place in mitochondria; Acetyl COA is broken apart- C to CO2; H atoms are removed; elect. transp. chain to form ATP
Is lactose a disaccharide?
Yes, it is both a carbohydrate and disaccharide
Is the smooth ER the site of fatty acid, phospholipid, and steriod synthesis?
Yes
The end products of the complete aerobic oxidation of glucose are:
Carbon dioxide, water, and energy
Would a red blood cell placed in pure water gain water/become bloated?
Yes.
explain what happens in the Kreabs cycle phase of cell respiration
Krebs Cycle takes place in mitochondria. acetyl COA is broken down: C at. are liberated as CO2
chemical bond between atoms formed by one or more electrons from one atom to another
ionic bond
created by electron sharing between atoms
covalent bond
form when a H at. is attracted by another electron hungery atom forming a bridge
hydrogen bond
what reaction is this:
AB--> A+B
catabolic and exothermic
plasma membrane is made mostly of ___
lipids
degrading unwanted materials is a funcion of the___
lysosomes