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26 Cards in this Set

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What drug helps to prevent NSAID induced peptic ulcers?
Misoprostol = PGE1 analog
- ↑ mucous production
- ↓ acid production
What are the anthracycline chemotherapeutics, what is their MOA and their SE? How can you prevent SE?
-rubicin's = Doxorubicin, daunorubicin etc.

Generate Free Radicals

Cardiotoxicity (dilated cardiomyopathy after "myofibrillary dropout"); PPx = Dexrazoxane (Fe chelator)
What is an IHF for mesenchymal origin tumors?
Vimentin (intermediate filament)
What IHF stain works for neuroendocrine tumors?
Chromogranin A
Neuron specific Enolase
What vasculitis is a/w transmural inflammation w/ fibrinoid necrosis? What infection is it a/w?
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN)

a/w HBV infx (30%)
What is the most serious SE of halothane?
Massive Hepatic Necrosis

d/t halothane metabolites

LM = massive centrilobar hepatic necrosis
What deficiency underlies Fabry's disease? What are the effects?
XLR deficiency of α-galactosidase A
Leads to accumulation of Ceramide Trihexoside (can't convert to glucocerebroside)

Effects = PN (acroparesthesia), Angiokeratomas (b/w umbilicus and knees) & if not supplemented w/ enzymes, will lead to RENAL FAILURE
Which lysosomal storage diseases cause cherry red spot on macula? How do you differentiate?
Tay-Sachs (NO HSM)
- Hexosaminidase A
- GM2 ganglioside

Niemann-Pick (HSM)
- Sphingomyelinase
- Sphingomyelin
What lysosomal storage diseases cause PN?
Fabry's Dz
- α-galactosidase A
- Ceramide trihexoside

Krabbe's Dz
- ß-galactocerebrosidase
- Galactocerebroside
What lysosomal storage disease is a/w HSM, aseptic necrosis of the femur & bone crises?? (kinda like a sickle cell pt?)
Gaucher's disease
- Glucocerebrosidase
- Glucocerebroside
- Gaucher's cells = macrophages ~ crumpled tissues
MOST COMMON lysosomal storage dz
What does cryptorchidism predispose someone to?
1) Infertile d/t seminal vessicles being sensitive to Temp - hyalinize and ↓inhibin secretion (therefore ↑FSH from pituitary)

2) if not corrected (w/ Orchioplexy b/4 2 y/o → increased risk for germ cell tumors (35x!!)
What is NF-kB? What are 2 diseases it's a/w?
An intracellular receptor in most cells that detects microbes that have invaded and stimulates TNF-α response.

In Crohn's = mutation of NOD2 might overstimulate

Asthma = is the target for beclomethasone & prednisone
How is bile made?
1) Free cholesterol → bile acids (cholic & chenodeoxycholic acids)
2) Conjugation w/ Glycine & Taurine (bile salts)
What keeps cholesterol from precipitating out in the gallbladder?
1) Bile acid
2) Phosphatidylcholine
What parasites are treated w/ Metronidazole?
GI infections:
- Giardia
- Entamoeba
STD
- Trichomonas vaginalis
What are the treatments for Malaria?
1) Chloroquine
- OR meflo-quine in resistant places like Africa

2) Primaquine (for the dormant hypnozoites of VIVAX & OVALE)
What are the components of endotoxin and what stimulates the body's response?
3 parts:
- Lipid A
- O Antigen
- Core polysaccharide

Lipid A activates macrophages → Inflammatory cytokines
What causes essential fructosuria?
Lack of Fructokinase

Benign (increased fructose in urine and blood)

Some fructose used by cells d/t action of Hexokinase that makes F6P → glycolysis
What does neuraminidase do?
Relase of virus from infected cells.

Inhibitors = Tamiflu (OselTAMIvir)
What are the penicillinase-resistant penicillins?
Nafcillin
Methicillin
Oxacillin

Good for empiric Tx of Staph aureus
What is amitryptaline? What are its SE's?
It's a TCA - blocks NE and 5HT reuptake.

SE are mainly anticholinergic (atropine-like)
What's the difference b/w Rubella and Rubeola?
Rubella = Togavirus w/ post-auricular LA (aka GERMAN measles)

Rubeola = Paramyxovirus

Both have rash that starts on head/face and descends
What is Dobutamine?
ß1 Agonist that:
1) ↑ HR
2) ↑ Contractility
3) ↑ Conduction velocity
4) ↑ Myocardial O2 consumption
What is hemiballismus and what causes it?
Sudden unilateral flailing of an extremity.

d/t damage to the subthalamic nucleus (can't stimulate globus palladus externus to inhibit thalamus from stimulating movement)

Usually d/t lacunar infarct d/t longstanding HTN
What is AZT and how does it work?
AZT = Zidovudine, a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)

It inhibits reverse transcriptase.

AZT is a thymidine analog but lacks a 3'-OH group, so it's incorporated into DNA but can't form phosphodiester link w/ next nucleotide
What are the symptoms of diabetic occulomotor neuropathy?
1) Ptsosis
2) "Down and Out" gaze

(Accomodation & light pupil response are unchanged)