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55 Cards in this Set

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how do you treat C. diff?
stop antibiotics and give oral metronidazole (IV works too)
When is a total knee replacement indicated?
pts have severe restriction of walking, night pain, rest pain,
When are steroid injections in the knee used?
In pts with OA and knee effusion as a short term solution
What is tyramine?
A sympathomimetic agent, usually metabolized in the gut
what drug helps cancer pts gain weight?
megestrol acetate
What material forms the most common type of kidney stones
calcium oxalate
what conditions increased the risk for caclium oxalate kidney stones?
small bowel disease, small bowel resection, fat malabsorption
who gets calcium phosphate stones?
pts with hyperparathyroidism and renal tubular acidosis
who gets cysteine stones?
pts with inborn error of metabolism
who gets struvite stones?
pts with UTI with proteus species, a urease producing bug
si/sx of open angle glaucoma?
gradual loss of peripheral vision, tunnel vision, high intraocular pressure, cupping of the optic disk
who gets open angle glaucoma?
African-Americans with diabetes
tx of open angle glaucoma?
timolol eye drops, laser trabeculoplasty, surgical trabeculoplasty
si/sx of diabetic retinopathy
asymptomatic till late, poor night vision, curtain falling when pts have vitreous bleed, floaters during resolution of vitreous bleeds
si/sx of acute closed angle glaucoma?
sudden onset of eye pain, blurry vision, hazy cornea, nausea, vomiting, red eye, fixed dilated pupil
si/sx of cataract
blurred vision, problems with nighttime driving, glare
what cancers does tamoxifen increase the risk of?
endometrial and uterine sarcoma
what is bigeminy?
when PVCs alternate with sinus beats
how do you treat PVCs
try not to, most are benign, ensure that electrolytes are normal, observe, quantify with Holter monitoring, stress tests
half-life of amiodarone?
>45 days
what arrhythmias are treated with digoxin?
afib, aflutter
two antithyroid drugs
PTU and methimazole
most serious side effect of anti-thyroid drugs
agranulocytosis
what drug can cause torsades de pointes?
quinine
how do you treat torsades de pointes?
magnesium, overdrive pacing, isoproterenol
what does PML look like on brain imaging?
no mass effect, multiple demyelinating, non-enhancing lesions, involves cortical white matter, brainstem and cerebellum
common presenting sx in PML?
hemiparesis, disturbances in speech, vision, and gait
prognosis for PML?
six months
what does toxoplasmosis look like on imaging?
ring enhancing lesions, multiple, spherical, located in basal ganglia
what does primary CNS lymphoma look like on imaging?
ring enhancing, solitary, weakly enhancing, periventricular
What virus is associated with primary CNS lymphoma?
EBV
causes of perioperative pulmonary edema?
overhydration, MI (rule it out)
What DOESN'T cause pulmonary edema?
PE!
Bugs in orbital cellulitis?
staph, strep pneumo, H. flu
si/sx of orbital cellulitis
proptosis, restriction of eye movement, fever, swollen red eyelids
how do you tell the difference between cavernous sinus thrombosis and orbital cellulitis?
cavernous sinus thrombosis is bilateral, with involvement of cranial nerves 3 and 5, with EARLY vision loss rather than late
define pseudocyesis
fake pregnancy, pt may have all the signs/symptoms but is not pregnant
quatrad of nephrotic syndrome
proteinuria, edema, hyperlipidemia, hypoalbuminemia
most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children and adults
kids: minimal change disease
adults: membranous glomerulopathy
why do pts with nephrotic syndrome get hypercoagulable
increased urinary loss of antithrombin 3, altered levels of proteins C and S, increased platelet aggregation, hyperfibrinogenemia, impaired fibrinolysis
why do pts with nephrotic syndrome become anemic
they lose transferrin in the urine-->microcytic anemia refractory to iron therapy
what's the deal with pts using nicotine patches and bupropion?
you have to closely monitor their blood pressure
what causes hereditary angioedema?
C1 inhibitor deficiency
what cancers are assoc with polymyositis/dermatomyositis?
breast, ovary, lung, prostate, colon
how long does it take vitamin K to reverse warfarin?
8-12 hours
what if a pt comes in for INR check, and it's >9?
if asymptomatic, stop warfarin and give oral vitamin K
what if a pt comes in for INR check and it's 5-9?
stop warfarin, don't give vitamin K
what is sympathetic ophthalmia?
inflammation of one eye after penetrating injury to the other eye
most common cause of pneumonia in HIV pts
strep pneumo
first step in infertility workup?
semen analysis
most sensitive test for anterior cruciate ligament tear
Lachman test
what is the unhappy triad of knee injury
anterior cruciate, medial colateral, medial meniscus
when does celiac usually present?
12-15 months of age
management of variable decel?
maternal oxygenation, change maternal position to lying on her side, trendelenburg position, amnioinfusion
what causes variable decels?
cord compression