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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
High AFP
NT defects
Low AFP
Downsyndrome
Neural crest gives rise to: (name 10)
PNS
Multipolar ganglion cells: autonomic ganglia
Pseudounipolar ganglion cells: Spinal and Cranial nn ganglia
Pigment cells - melanocytes
Odontoblasts
Chromaffin cells - adrenal medulla
Parafollicular cells - C cells
Schwann cells
Leptomeninges - pia & arachnoid
Skeletal and connective tissue components of the pharyngeal arches
Failure of anterior neuropore to close -->
Anencephaly - when closes it forms the lamina terminalis
Myelination in the cerebral association cortex continues until...
The third decade.
In new born, the conus meduallaris ends at
L3
From what secondary vesicle is th optic nn and chiasma derived?
Diencephalon
The two embryologic substrata from which the hypophysis is derived:
Adenohypophysis - anterior lobe is from ectodermal diverticula of Rathke's pouch. Craniopharyngioma is tumor of remnant of rathke's pouch.
Neurohypophysis is from the ventral evagination of the hypothalamus - neuroectoderm of neural tube.
Spinal bifida is due to:
Failure of posterior neuropore to form. Sacrolumbar area
Which maternal infections can lead to hydrocephalus due to stenosis of cerebral aqueduct in babe.
CMV and toxoplasmosis
Manifest of Fetal ETOH syndrome
microcephaly, CHD, holoprosencephlay (most severe)
Name the most common supratentorial tumor in childhood
Craniopharyngioma --> hypopituitarism
Abnormalities in Arnold-Chiari malformation
Broken tectal plate -- Stenosis -f aqueductal tract -- transforaminal herniation of medulla -- unrolling and herniation of cerebellum vermis -- meningomyelocele.
Dandy-walker malformation - B2 deficiency, posterior fossa trauma or viral infection.
Foremen Luschka and magendie fail to form, form occipital meningocele, agenesis of cerebellar vermis and corpus calosum -- enormous dilation of 4th ventricle
Where are bipolar neurons found?
Retina
Cochlear and vestibular ganglia
Olfactory - unmyelinated
MOA of colchicine in inhibition of microtubule transport in neurons
Depolymerization
Wallerian degeneration
Anterograde deger. - affected axons and myelin sheath and prolife of schwann cells. Both in CNS and PNS.
Retrograde degen
chromatolysis
Macroglia
astrocytes and oligodendrocytes
Tanycytes
modified ependymal cells that mediate transport betw ventricles and neuropil and regulate release of gonadotropins from adenohypophysis - actually project to these nuclei
Lipofuscin
residula bodies from lysosomes that accumulate in the cytoplasm with aging
Melanin in the CNS
Susbtancia nigra and Locus cereules
intracytoplasmic inclusion
Lewy bodies
Neuronal inclusions
Parkinsons
Negri bodes
intracytoplasmic inclusions
Found in purkinje cells of cerebrellum and pyramidal cells of hipocampus.
Pathognomic for rabies.
Hirano bodies
Alzheimer patients
intranueronal inclusions - rod like - eosenophilic
In hippocampal neurons
Neurofibrillary tangles
intracytoplasmic - degen neurofilaments
Alzheimers
Cowdry type A inclusions
Herpes simplex encephalitis
intranuclear inclusions
in infected glia and neurons
Most metastatic brain tumors are from:
Lung --> breast --> GI --> melanoma --> kidney
1/3 brain tumors - mets
2/3 are primary tumors
The five most common brain tumors are:
1. Glioblastoma multiforme
2. Meningioma - convexity and falx - benign
3. Schwannoma - benign
4. Ependymoma
5. Medulloblastoma
Most common pediatric intracranial tumor
Cerebellar astrocytoma - pilocytic astrocytes and rosenthal fibers
Medulloblastoma
Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor - PNET, 2nd most common in children in posterior fossa, radiosensitive
Hemangioblastoma
common in cerebellum
If cerebellum and retina - think VHL
Ependymoma
Most common spinal cord glioma
third most common infratentorial tumor in children
60% - are infratentorial
Meningioma
Benign --> concentric whorls and psammoma bodies, more in females --> assoc. with NF2
Glioblastoma multioforme
Repidly progressive and fatal astrocytotic tumor -- frontal, temporal lobes and basal ganglia -- butterfly glioma --pseudopalisades & perivascular psuedorosettes
Oligodendrogliomas
cells look like fried eggs - perinuclear halos
Most common of the supratentorial tumors in children
Craniophayngioma
Spinal cord address of phrenic nucleus
C3 - C6
Spinal cord address of SPINAL ACCESSORY nucleus
C1 - C6
Spinal cord address of PARASYMPATHETIC nucleus
S2 - S4
Spinal cord address of nucleus OF DORSALIS CLARK
C8 - L3 -- SPINOCEREBELLAR TRACT
Hypothalamospinal tract
Descend uninterrupted to T1/T2 to ciliospinal center of intermediolateral cell column. If interrupted - ipsilateral horners sign
Werdnig Hoffman disease
Progressive infantile muscular atrophy - LMN disease
90% of time, intervertebral disc herniation is at:
L4-L5 or L5-S1

10% C5-C6 or C6-C7
Pathogenesis of intervertebral disk herniation
Have defective annulus fibrosis and nucleus propulsus herniates through this into vertebral canal
List muscles innervated by the trigemminal nn - SVE.
Mylohyoid
Anterior belly of digastric
tensori tympani
veli palatini
muscles that move jaw: lateral and medial pterygoids.
Role of Lateral Pterygoid muscle
Bilateral innervation - forward protrusion of tip of mandible along midline. Also responsible for opening the jaw. Denerv. -- deviated to ipisilateral side
Drug of choice use to treat idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia
Carbamazepine
Contents of the carvenous sinus
CN III, IV, V1 & postganglionic sympathetics, V-2, siphon of internal carotid
What do the corneal relfex,oculocardiac reflex and tear reflex have in common
inn by V-1, ophthalmic nerve branch of the trigemminal.
For the tearing and corneal, CN VII is the efferent limb.
Oculocardiac - Efferent is CN X