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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
action of finasteride?
inhibits 5 alpha reductase; enzyme that converts testosterone -> dihydrotestosterone
when pushing a piano across the floor, what transfers force from radius to ulna?
interosseous membrane
what structure allows enteric gram negative bacteria to be more resistant to penicillin G than gram positive bacteria?
outer membrane
in a woman, what will happen when 17-beta-estradiol peaks in the absence of progesterone?
the estrogen peak will cause an LH surge and lead to ovulation
what type of receptors are commonly used by peptide hormones that regulate growth, differentiation and development?
tyrosine kinase receptors
what brain structure is damaged in intention tremor, or tremor when attempting purposeful movement?
cerebellum (ipsilateral side)
in an elderly person, what muscle should be strengthened to try and avoid urinary incontinence?
urogenital diaphragm
what is the mean pO2 of fetal oxygenated blood?
~ 30 mmHg
what is parathion?
an organophosphate ACholinesterase inhibitor
what is a urachal cyst?
a cyst formed in the connection between the umbilicus and the apex of the bladder
what is cycloplegia?
paralysis of the ciliary muscle, so that the lens can't change focus for different distances
name a drug that would cause mydriasis without producing cycloplegia. what is the mxn?
phenylephrine, an alpha1 agonist
anti-microsomal antibodies in the thyroid. disease?
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
what happens to reaction velocities when the enzyme concentration is halved?
the velocities are halved along the curve
what virus can cause severe pulmonary and hepatic dysfunction in an immune-compromised individual?
CMV
duodenal atresia of the fetus leads to polyhydramnios or oligohydroamnios?
polyhydramnios - can't swallow amniotic fluid
where are the characteristic hemorrhagic lesions in Korsakoff's syndrome?
lesions: mammillary bodies, dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus, periventricular regions from 3rd to 4th ventricle
damage to what part of the brain leads to problems with primary (immediate) memory?
mammillary glands
kids are vulnerable to what kidney disease following a viral upper respiratory infection?
minimal change disease
what 2 organs are derived from the 3rd pharyngeal pouch?
thymus: ventral part

inferior parathyroids: dorsal part
what are the calorie contents of carbs, proteins and fats?
carbs and proteins: 4 kcal/gram

fats: 9 kcal/gram
what enzyme deficiency is the most likely cause of hereditary hyperammonemia?
carbamoyl phophate synthetase I
the subscapular artery forms an anastomosis with branches of what other artery?
subclavian
what is damaged in ARDS? what are the sequelae?
diffuse injury to alveolar capillaries

leakage of fluid and proteins into the interstitium or alveoli to produce severe pulmonary edema -> thick hyaline membranes are formed from edema fluid and cellular debris
what bugs can be identified with clumping of latex beads coated with antibody and fibrinogen?
gram-positive cocci
what protein on staphylococci binds IgG?
protein A
what secretes mullerian inhibitory substance in males to cause regression of mullerian ducts?
Sertoli cells
what do you call the acute, reversible disorder affecting orientation, perception, cognition and reality testing?
delirium
name a group of muscles involved in vocalization that could be paralyzed with damage to the vagus nerve.
cricoarytenoid
artificial sweetener aspartame is a dipeptide of what 2 aa's?
phenylalanine and aspartate
the median nerve lies between what 2 structures in the wrist?
flexor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficiale
what enzyme is deficient when the liver stores too much glycogen with normal structure?
glucose-6-phosphatase
what does glucose-6-phosphatase do in the liver?
removes phosphate group from glucose
why are loading doses of medications administered?
because a drug can bind heavily to plasma proteins, making less available
how does cocaine act on neurons?
blocks monoamine reuptake (NE, dopamine, serotonin)
what 2 muscles control pupil diameter and how are they innervated?
radial dilator muscle: contracts (mydriasis) with alpha-receptor stimulation

pupillary sphincter muscle: constricts (myosis) with muscarinic (ACh) stimulation
how does the drug tyramine work?
indirect-acting sympathomimetic: taken up by sympathetic nerve terminals and pushes NE into synapse
what type of fluids are needed to increase BP in a volume-depleted patient?
remains in ECF compartment and have tonicity similar to plasma
how many liters of fluid must be added to the ECF to replace 1 liter of plasma fluid?
3 liters (2 go to interstitial space, 1 to plasma)
granulomatous colitis is another term for what disorder?
Crohn's disease
an elderly person with history of diverticulosis has increased risk for what complication?
GI hemorrhage
an elderly patient presents with symptoms resembling "appendicitis on the left", tenderness to palpation, fever and leukocytosis. diagnosis?
diverticulitis
a young girl hasn't eaten for 2 days. what source of fuel are her muscles now using?
serum fatty acids
how do amphetamines work?
enter nerve terminals and displace NE
in what layers do you find the blood vessels that supply the skin?
deep and superficial layers of the dermis
which blood vessels in the skin are oriented horizontally?
those of the deep dermis