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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What kind of murmur is heard with a PDA?
Continuous "machine-like" murmur
What congenital cardiac defects are associated with 22q11 syndromes?
Truncus arteriosus
Tetrology of Fallot
What congenital cardiac defects are associated with Down Syndrome?
Septal Defects:
- ASD
- VSD
- AV Septal Defect
(aka the endocardial cushion effect)
What congenital cardiac defects are associated with congenital Rubella?
Septal defects
The P's:
- PDA
- Pulmonary artery stenosis
What congenital cardiac defects are associated with Turner Syndrome?
- Coarctation of the Aorta (Pre-Ductal)
- Biscuspid Aortic Valve
What congenital cardiac defects are associated with Marfan's Syndrome?
Aortic problems:
- Aortic insufficiency
- Aortic dissection
What congenital cardiac defect is most commonly associated with child of a Diabetic mother?
Transposition of the great vessels
What conditions does Ebstein anomoly predispose you to?
1) SVT = Supraventricular tachycardia
2) WPW = Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
What is Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome?
Irregular heart contractions d/t an accessory communication b/w the atria and ventricles (bypasses the AV node).

The accessory communication is known as the "bundle of Kent"
What are the posterior fossa malformations?
Chiari II
Dandy-Walker
What are the regions of the developing brain at week 4?
Three primary vesicles:
1) Prosencephalon
2) Mesencephalon
3) Rhombencephalon
What are the regions of the developing brain at week 5?
Five secondary vesicles:
1) Telencephalon
2) Diencephalon
3) Mesencephalon
4) Metencephalon
5) Myelencephalon
What are the adult derivatives of the Telencephalon?
Cerebral hemispheres including:
- basal ganglia
- hippocampus
- amygdala

Lateral ventricles
What are the adult derivatives of the Diencephalon?
- Thalamus
- Hypothalamus
- Optic Nerve & Tracts

- 3rd Ventricle
What are the adult derivatives of the Mesencephalon?
Midbrain

Aqueduct of the Ventricles
What are the adult derivatives of the Metencephalon?
Pons
Cerebellum

4th Ventricle (upper part)
What are the adult derivatives of the Myelencephalon?
Medulla

4th Ventricle (lower part)
How are neural tube defects diagnosed in utero?
AAA:

A - Amniocentesis showing:
A - AFP elevated
A - Acetylcholinesterase
What are the signs of Holoprosencephaly? What is it associated w/?
= Lack of hemispheric separation of brain

Signs:
- Cyclopia
- Cleft left/palate

Associated w/:
1) Patau syndrome (trisomy 13)
2) Fetal alcohol syndrome
What are the components of the Branchial / Pharyngeal apparatus and from what cell layers do they derive?
1) Clefts = Ectoderm
2) Arches = Mesoderm
3) Pouches = Endoderm

mnemonic= CAP
What is derived from the branchial clefts?
1st Cleft --> External auditory meatus

The rest (2-4) are temporary cervical sinuses that are obliterated.

If persist --> Branchial cleft cyst in lateral neck (won't move w/ swallowing)
What are the cartilaginous derivatives of the 1st Branchial Arch?
1st Arch = The M's & T's

Cartilage:
- Mandible
- Malleus
- Incus
- Spheno-Mandibular ligament
What are the muscular derivatives of the 1st Branchial Arch?
1st Arch = M's & T's

1) Muscles of Mastication
- Temporalis
- Masseter
- pTerygoids (laTeral & Medial)
2) Mylohyoid
3) anTerior belly of digasTric
4) Tensors:
- tensor tympani
- tensor veli palatini
What are the nerve derivatives of the 1st Branchial Arch?
1st Arch = M's & T's

Mastication = Chewing
CN V2
CN V3
What abnormalities occur involving the 1st Branchial Arch?
1st Arch = M's & T's

Treacher Collins syndrome:
- Mandibular hypoplasia
- facial abnormalities

d/t failure of 1st-arch neural crest cells to migrate
What CN's have both motor & sensory components? What do they share?
V3
VII
IX
X

Are all related to pharyngeal arch derivatives.
What are the cartilaginous derivatives of the 2nd Branchial Arch?
2nd Arch = The S's

Reichert's Cartilage:
- Stapes
- Styloid process
- Stylohyoid lygament
- Hyoid (leSSer horn)
What are the muscular derivatives of the 2nd Branchial Arch?
2nd Arch = The S's

- Stapedius
- Stylohyoid
- muscles of facial expreSSion
- poSterior belly of digaStric
What are the nerve derivatives of the 2nd Branchial Arch?
2nd Arch = S's

CN Seven (VII) = Smile

(facial expreSSion)
What are the cartilaginous derivatives of the 3rd Branchial Arch?
3rd Arch = Pharyngeal

- Hyoid (greater horn)
What are the muscular derivatives of the 3rd Branchial Arch?
3rd Arch = Pharyngeal

stylo-PHARYNGeus

(styloPHARYNGeus swallow STYLishly)
What are the nervous derivatives of the 3rd Branchial Arch?
3rd Arch = Pharyngeal

CN IX = glosso-PHARYNGEAL

(styloPHARYNGeus swallow STYLishly)
What abnormalities are associated with the 3rd Branchial Arch?
3rd Arch = Pharyngeal

Congenital PHARYNGocutaneous fistula = b/w:
- tonsilar area
- cleft in lateral neck
What are the cartilaginous derivatives of the 4th-6th Branchial Arch?
4th - 6th = neck & voicebox

Cartilage in neck = TACCC
- thyroid
- arytenoids
- cricoid
- corniculate
- cuneiform
What are the muscular derivatives of the 4th-6th Branchial Arch?
4th - 6th = neck & voicebox

4th:
- pharyngeal constrictors
- levator veli palatini
- CRICOTHYROID

6th:
- all layrnx EXCEPT cricothyroid
What are the nervous derivatives of the 4th-6th Branchial Arch?
4th - 6th = neck & voicebox

CNX =
- 4th - Superior laryngeal branch
(Simply Swallow)

- 6th - Recurrent laryngeal branch
(SPEAK)
What are the branchial pouch derivatives?
Ear, Tonsils, Bottom-to Top

1 = Ear (middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells)

2 = Tonsils (palatine)

3:
- Bottom (inferior parathyroids)
- to (thymus)

4 = Top (superior parathyroids)
Which abberant development results in DiGeorge syndrome and what are the consequences?
3rd & 4th Branchial pouches

Results in:
- Thymic aplasia --> decreased cellular immunity
- Parathyroid failure --> HypoCa2+ (d/t low PTH)
What mutation is associate w/ branchial pouches and what are its consequences?
MEN2A = RET mutation

--> 2 Medullas:
- adREnal
- Thyroid
--> 2 A's in pArAthyroid
What is the tongue innervation (anterior --> posterior)?
Taste = VII, IX, X (solitary nucleus)

Pain = V3, IX, X

Motor = All by XII (hypoglossal)
What is the most common ectopic thyroid tissue site?
The tongue.

(tongue and developing thyroid are connected via thyroglossal duct)
What is the etiology of cleft lip?
M&M:

Failure of nasal processes to fuse --> 1º palate:
- maxillary nasal process
- medial nasal process
What is the etiology of cleft palate?
LMN

Failure of fusion of the palatine processes + the nasal septum --> 2º palate:
- Lateral palatine process
- Median palatine process
- Nasal septum