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46 Cards in this Set

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Caseating granulomas think:
* TB
Non-caseating granulomas think:
* Sarcoidosis
Deficiency seen with PANLOBULAR emphysema
* AAT deficiency leads to lack of an anti-protease, which leads to development of emphysema, typically a panlobular type affecting lower lobes more severely
Lung cancer associated with hypercalcemia:
* Squamos cell carcinoma
Aspiration of gastric contents (usually into the R lung) and and air fluid level think:
* Lung abscess
A pt with a fever and bilateral interstitial infiltrates probably has:
* Viral pneumonia (viral = chronic interstitial inflammation)
Characteristics of chronic bronchitis:
* Persistent productive cough for at least 3 months over 2 consecutive years (they will have mucus gland hypertrophy)
A pt with diaphragmatic pleural plaques with focal calcification has probably been exposed to:
* Asbestos
Sub-pleural bullae that are prone to burst in young adults is called:
* Paraseptal emphysema (spontaneous pneumothorax)
A pt involved in a severe accident who is given 100% oxygen as the potential to develop:
* ARDS (or diffuse alveolar damage)-- due to "Shock lung"
Differential dx for a pt (smoker) who has a single solitary coin lesion in the R upper lobe:
* Adenocarcinoma, granuloma, or hamartoma
A pt with lower lobe consolidation who doesn't respond to antibiotic therapy probably has:
* Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (can spread in a pneumonia like pattern)
A pt with hilar lymphadenopathy and her microscopic exam shows no viral inclusions, no fungi, no acid fast bacilli, and no atypical cells, what is she most likely to have?
* Sarcoidosis-- hilar lymphadenopathy is classic along with fever, dyspnea, and weight loss
A pt with small cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm has what lung cancer:
* Oat cell (small cell) carcinoma-- frequently affects ADH (low serum Na+) and ACTH levels
Organism most likely to cause a lung abscess (air fluid level):
* Staph aureus
A pt with central lung cancer that microscopically has alveoli filled with foamy macrophages:
* Squamos cell carcinoma
Asthmatic episodes are often initiated by:
* Type I hypersensitivity reactions (allergens)
Cor pulmonale is the result of:
* Pulmonary HTN (Often seen with emphysema)
Peripheral lung cancers are:
* Adenocarcinoma, Bronchioalveolar carcinoma, and Large Cell Carcinoma
Central lung cancers are:
* Squamos cell carcinoma (High Ca2+) and Oat cell (small cell carcinoma)
Organism that causes primary atypical pneumonia:
* Mycoplasma pneumonia
Corticosteroids can be given to diabetic moms to help their fetuses speed development of this in their tiny lil' baby lungs:
* Surfactant (from Type II pneumocytes)
The "Ghon complex" is typically seen with:
* TB (mycobacterium tuberculosis)
Disease seen in babies who don't have enough surfactant:
* Hyaline membrane disease (often seen with babies of diabetic moms)
What does alpha-antitrypsin deficiency affect in the lung:
* The distal acinus beyond the respiratory bronchiole (the alveolar duct)
Histo findings in hyaline membrane disease:
* Decreased lamellar bodies in Type II pneumocytes (surfactant producers)
Infants treated for hyaline membrane disease with high O2 are at risk of this complication when taken off the oxygen:
* Bronchiopulmonary dysplasia
The final common pathway for many acute lung injuries in adults is:
* Diffuse alveolar damage or (ARDS)
Charcot-laden crystals and Curschmann's spirals are associated with:
* Asthma
General causative agent of epiglottitis in kids:
* H. influenzae
Lung with multiple cystic spaces found in the end stages of interstitial lung disease:
* Honeycomb lung
Communication between adjacent alveolar spaces-- allows for spread of infection:
* Pores of Kohn
Diffuse interstitial lung disease characterized by dense, proetienacious PAS+ fluid, necrotic type II pneumo's, and alveolar mac's within alveolar spaces:
* Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
The Reid index (bronchial gland thickness to total bronchial wall thickness) is increased with:
* Chronic bronchitis
A kid who aspirates an object will have tracheal deviation toward what side?
* Toward the side of the object
What is a ferrunginous body?
* Incompletely engulfed asbestos fiber encrusted by protein and iron
What gas exchange is favored in high V/Q units:
* High V/Q favors CO2 elimination over O2 uptake
4 stages of lobar pneumonia:
* Congestion, red hepatization, gray hep, and resolution -- has masson bodies also
Restrictive lung disease often seen in african american women who have non-caseating granulomas:
* Sarcoidosis
A patient with diarrhea, flushing, and wheezing might have:
* Carcinoid syndrome-- elevated seratonin
Common asthma med that can result in hypokalemia:
* Albuterol
Part of the airway damaged with centriacinar and panacinar emphysema:
* Centriacinar = resp. bronchiole

Panacinar = Alveoli
Type of emphysema associated with alpha-antitrypsin deficiency (AAT):
* Panacinar emphysema
What is bronchiectasis and is it restrictive or obstructive?
* Bronciectasis (obstructive) is a permanent dilation of bronchi and bronchioles d/t cystic fibrosis, infections, obstruction, etc.
Epithelial, mediastinal tumor that is associated with myasthenia gravis:
* Thymoma
Is a transudate or exudate more common with pneumonia?
* Exudate