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378 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Kayser-Fleischer rings
Wilson disease
Aschoff bodies
Rheumatic fever
Curschmann spirals
Bronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs)
Charcot-Leyden crystals
Bronchial asthma (eosinophil membranes)
Keratin pearls
Squamous cell carcinoma
Bence-Jones proteinuria
Multiple myeloma
Russell bodies
Multiple myeloma
WBCs in the urine
Acute cystitis
RBCs in the urine
Bladder carcinoma
RBC casts in the urine
Acute glomerulonephritis
WBC casts in the urine
Acute pyelonephritis
Renal epithelial casts in the urine
Acute toxic or viral nephrosis
Waxy casts
Chronic end-stage renal disease
Signet ring cells
Gastric carcinoma
Heinz bodies
G-6-PD deficiency
Mallory bodies
Chronic alcoholic
Auer rods
AML-M3
Starry sky pattern
Burkitt lymphoma
Birbeck granules
Histiocytosis X
Reed-Sternberg cells
Hodgkin lymphoma
Call-Exner bodies
Granulosa/thecal cell tumor of the ovary
Cowdry type A bodies
Herpesvirus
Orphan Annie cells
Papillary carcinoma of the ovary
Streaky ovaries
Turner syndrome
Blue-domed cysts
Fibrocystic change of the breast
Reinke crystals
Leydig cell tumor
Schiller-Duval bodies
Yolk sac tumor
Codman triangle on radiograph
Osteosarcoma
Councilman bodies
Toxic or viral hepatitis
Blue sclera
Osteogenesis imperfecta
Soap bubble appearance on radiograph
Giant cell tumor of the bone
Pseudorosettes
Ewing sarcoma
Neurofibrillary tangles
Alzheimer disease
Homer-Wright rosettes
Neuroblastoma
Lewy bodies
Parkinson disease
Lucid interval
Epidural hematoma
Bloody tap on lumbar puncture
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Pseudopalisades
Glioblastoma multiforme
Senile plaques
Alzheimer disease
Café-au-lait spot on the skin
Neurofibromatosis
Name the most common cause.
• Blindness worldwide
Chlamydia trachomatis
Name the most common cause.
• Blindness in the United States
Diabetes mellitus
Name the most common cause.
• Dementia in persons aged 60 to 90 years
Alzheimer disease
Name the most common type.
• Learning disability
Dyslexia
Name the most common type.
• Mental retardation
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Name the most common type.
• Phobia
Stage fright (discrete performance anxiety)
Name the most common type.
• Psychiatric disorder in women of all ages
Anxiety disorders; for men it is substance abuse.
Name the most common type.
• Specific phobia
Public speaking (Remember: stage fright)
Name the most common cause.
• Chronic pancreatitis
Alcohol abuse
Name the most common cause.
• Infectious pancreatitis
Mumps
Name the most common cause.
• Insomnia
Depression
Name the most common cause.
• Hospitalization in children younger than 1 year of age
RSV
Name the most common cause.
• Croup
Parainfluenza virus
Name the most common cause.
• A cold in the winter and summer
Coronavirus
Name the most common cause.
• A cold in the spring and fall
Rhinovirus
Which virus is the MCC of a cold in the summer and fall? Winter and spring?
Rhinoviruses for summer and fall; coronaviruses for winter and spring
Name the most common type or cause.
• Restrictive cardiomyopathy
Amyloidosis
Name the most common type or cause.
• Death in the United States
Ischemic heart disease (MIs)
Name the most common type or cause.
• Sudden cardiac death
Ventricular fibrillation (V fib)
Name the most common type or cause.
• Right heart failure
Left heart failure
Name the most common type or cause.
• Childhood heart disease in the United States
Congenital heart disease
Name the most common type or cause.
• Cyanotic heart disease
Tetralogy of Fallot
Name the most common type or cause.
• Subacute bacterial endocarditis
Streptococcus viridans
Name the most common type or cause.
• Acute bacterial endocarditis
Staphylococcus aureus
Name the most common type or cause.
• Viral pneumonia leading to death
RSV
Name the most common type or cause.
• Infection in a patient on a ventilator
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Name the most common type or cause.
• Bronchiolitis in children
RSV
Name the most common type or cause.
• Pulmonary HTN in children
VSD
Name the most common type or cause.
• Reversible HTN in the United States
Alcohol abuse
Name the most common type or cause.
• Spontaneous pneumothorax
Emphysematous bleb
Name the most common type or cause.
• Nonorganic pneumoconiosis
Asbestosis
Name the most common type or cause.
• Cellular injury
Hypoxia
Name the most common type or cause.
• Hypoxia
Ischemia
Name the most common type or cause.
• Lobar pneumonia
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Name the most common type or cause.
• Lung abscess
Aspiration
Name the most common type or cause.
• Cirrhosis in the United States
Alcohol consumption
Name the most common type or cause.
• Nephrotic syndrome
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MGN)
Name the most common type or cause.
• Nephrotic syndrome in children
Lipoid nephrosis
Name the most common type or cause.
• Liver transplantation in adults
Alcoholic cirrhosis
Name the most common type or cause.
• UTIs
Escherichia coli
Name the most common type or cause.
• Urinary tract obstruction
BPH
Name the most common type or cause.
• Painless hematuria
Renal cell carcinoma
Name the most common type or cause.
• Hematuria
Infection
Name the most common type or cause.
• GN in the world
IgA nephropathy
Name the most common type or cause.
• Nephrotic syndrome in children
Minimal change disease
Name the most common type or cause.
• Nephritic syndrome in adults
MGN
Name the most common type or cause.
• Acute renal failure in the United States
Acute tubular necrosis
Name the most common type or cause.
• Acute tubular necrosis
Ischemic
Name the most common type or cause.
• Diarrhea in children
Rotavirus
Name the most common type or cause.
• Intestinal obstructions in adults
Adhesions and hernias
Name the most common type or cause.
• Neonatal bowel obstruction
Hirschsprung disease
Name the most common type or cause.
• Rectal bleeding
Diverticulosis
Name the most common type or cause.
• Mallory-Weiss syndrome
Alcoholism
Name the most common type or cause.
• Anovulation
Polycystic ovaries
Name the most common type or cause.
• Breast lump in females
Fibrocystic change of the breast
Name the most common type or cause.
• Hematologic cause of papillary necrosis
Sickle cell disease
Name the most common type or cause.
• Panhypopituitarism
Sheehan syndrome
Name the most common type or cause.
• Cushing syndrome
Pituitary adenoma
Name the most common type or cause.
• Noniatrogenic hypothyroidism in the United States
Hashimoto thyroiditis
Name the most common type or cause.
• Hypothyroidism in the United States
Iatrogenesis
Name the most common type or cause.
• Pyogenic osteomyelitis
Staphylococcus aureus
Name the most common type or cause.
• Neonatal septicemia and meningitis
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, or GBS)
Name the most common type or cause.
• Sinusitis and otitis media in children
Pneumococcus
Name the most common type or cause.
• Meningitis in adults
Pneumococcus
Name the most common type or cause.
• Meningitis in renal transplantation patients
Listeria monocytogenes
Name the most common type or cause.
• Infantile bacterial diarrhea
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (Rotavirus is the MCC overall.)
Name the most common type or cause.
• Infantile diarrhea
Rotavirus
Name the most common type or cause.
• Chancre
Haemophilus ducreyi
Name the most common type or cause.
• Urethritis in a young, newly sexually active individual
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Name the most common type or cause.
• Cystitis
Escherichia coli
Name the most common type or cause.
• Erysipelas
Streptococcus pyogenes
Name the most common type or cause.
• Chronic metal poisoning
Lead
Name the most common type or cause.
• Acute metal poisoning in the United States
Arsenic
Name the MCC of death.
• In neonates
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS)
Name the MCC of death.
• In SLE
Renal failure
Name the MCC of death.
• In diabetic individuals
MI
Name the MCC of death.
• In patients with cystic fibrosis
Pulmonary infections
What is the MCC of death in the United States?
Heart disease
What is the second leading cause of death in the United States?
Cancer
What is the MCC of death in children aged 1 to 14 in the United States?
Accidents
What is the second leading cause of death in children aged 1 to 14 in the United States?
Cancer
What is the MCC of cancer mortality in males and females?
Lung cancer
What is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in males? In females?
For males it's prostate cancer, and for females it's breast cancer.
What is the MCC of death in black males aged 15 to 24?
Homicide. It is also the leading cause of death in black females aged 15 to 24.
What are the two MCC of acute epididymitis in males?
• Less than 35 years old
Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis
What are the two MCC of acute epididymitis in males?
• More than 35 years old
Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp.
What is the most common causative organism of acne vulgaris?
Propionibacterium acnes
What is the MCC of viral conjunctivitis?
Adenovirus
What is the MCC of the following endocarditis scenarios?
• Post dental work
Streptococcus viridans
What is the MCC of the following endocarditis scenarios?
• Following biliary infections
Enterococcus faecalis
What is the MCC of the following endocarditis scenarios?
• Non–IV drug user
Staphylococcus aureus
Name the MCC.
• Epiglottitis in an unvaccinated child
Haemophilus influenzae type B
Name the MCC.
• Pneumonia in adults
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Name the MCC.
• Pneumonia in a neutropenic burn patient
Pseudomonas sp.
Name the MCC.
• Pneumonia in a patient with atypical bird exposure and hepatitis
Chlamydia psittaci
Name the MCC.
• Walking pneumonia, seen in teens and military recruits
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Name the MCC.
• Aspiration pneumonia in an alcoholic
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Name the MCC.
• Pneumonia in an HIV-positive patient with CD4 less than 200
Pneumocystis carinii
What is the MCC of the following meningitides?
• In patients who have AIDS or are immunocompromised
Cryptococcus
What is the MCC of the following meningitides?
• In military recruits
Neisseria meningitides
What is the MCC of the following meningitides?
• In those 12 months to 6 years of age
Haemophilus influenzae type B
What is the MCC of the following meningitides?
• In neonates to 3 months of age
Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli
What is the MCC of the following meningitides?
• In adults
Streptococcus pneumoniae
What is the MCC of the following meningitides?
• In renal transplant patients
Listeria monocytogenes
What is the most common one?
• Helminthic parasite worldwide
Ascaris lumbricoides
What is the most common one?
• Helminth parasitic infection in the United States
Enterobius vermicularis
What is the most common one?
• Form of necrosis
Coagulative
What is the most common one?
• Organism that causes pyelonephritis
Escherichia coli
What is the most common one?
• Congenital cardiac anomaly
VSD
What is the most common one?
• Cardiac anomaly in children
PDA
What is the most common one?
• Complication of PDA
Subacute bacterial endocarditis
What is the most common one?
• Congenital heart defect in adults
ASD
What is the most common one?
• Type of ASD
Ostium secundum defects
What is the most common one?
• Vasculitis
Temporal arteritis
What is the most common one?
• Form of vasculitis
Temporal arteritis
What is the most common one?
• Cardiac tumor
Left atrial myxoma
What is the most common one?
• Cardiac tumor of infancy
Rhabdomyoma
What is the most common one?
• Cardiac pathology in patients with SLE
Libman-Sacks endocarditis
What is the most common one?
• Cardiac anomaly in Turner syndrome
Coarctation of the aorta
What is the most common one?
• Valve abnormality associated with rheumatic fever
Mitral valve stenosis
What is the most common one?
• Viral cause of myocarditis
Coxsackie B
What is the most common one?
• Primary lung cancer
Adenocarcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Primary malignant tumor of the lungs
Adenocarcinoma (30% to 35%)
What is the most common one?
• Neoplastic tumor in the lungs
Metastatic carcinomas
What is the most common one?
• Bladder tumor
Transitional cell carcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Renal calculus type
Calcium oxylate
What is the most common one?
• Kidney stone type
Calcium oxalate
What is the most common one?
• Solid tumor in children
Neuroblastoma
What is the most common one?
• Renal pathology in patients with SLE
Diffuse proliferative GN
What is the most common one?
• Cancer of the esophagus in the world
Squamous cell carcinoma
What is the most common one?
Esophageal cancer in the United States
Adenocarcinoma (because of Barrett esophagus)
What is the most common one?
• Malignant tumor of the esophagus
Squamous cell carcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Benign GI tumor
Leiomyoma
What is the most common one?
• Site of ischemia in the GI tract
Splenic flexure
What is the most common one?
• Type of PUD
Duodenal ulcers (4 times as common as gastric)
What is the most common one?
• Location of a duodenal ulcer
Anterior wall of the first part of the duodenum
What is the most common one?
• Location of a gastric ulcer
Lesser curvature of the antrum of the stomach
What is the most common one?
• Site for carcinoid tumors
Appendix (second is terminal ileum)
What is the most common one?
• Site for colonic diverticula
Sigmoid colon
What is the most common one?
• Site of Crohn disease
Terminal ileum
What is the most common one?
• Site of ulcerative colitis
Rectum
What is the most common one?
• Site of pancreatic cancer
Head of the pancreas
What is the most common one?
• Pancreatic islet cell tumor
Insulinoma
What is the most common one?
• Stone type associated with cholecystitis
Mixed (both cholesterol and calcium)
What is the most common one?
• Liver tumor
Metastatic carcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Primary malignant tumor in the liver
Hepatocellular carcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Primary tumor of the liver
Hemangioma (benign)
What is the most common one?
• Organism associated with liver abscesses
Entamoeba histolytica
What is the most common one?
• Renal cell cancer type
Clear cell
What is the most common one?
• Esophageal carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Solid tumor in the body
Nephroblastoma
What is the most common one?
• Malignancy in children
ALL
What is the most common one?
• Lymph node affected in non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Periaortic lymph nodes
What is the most common one?
• Subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma
Nodular sclerosis
What is the most common one?
• Thyroid cancer
Papillary carcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Thyroid adenoma
Follicular adenoma
What is the most common one?
• Malignant thyroid tumor
Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
What is the most common one?
• Pituitary tumor
Chromophobe adenoma
What is the most common one?
• Pituitary adenoma
Prolactinoma
What is the most common one?
• Tumor arising within the bone
Multiple myeloma
What is the most common one?
• Tumor on sun-exposed sites
Basal cell carcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Malignant germ cell tumor in women
Choriocarcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Primary malignant tumor of the ovary
Serocystadenocarcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Malignant tumor in women
Breast
What is the most common one?
• Cancer of the vulva
Squamous cell carcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Primary malignant tumor of the female genital tract in the world
Cervical neoplasia
What is the most common one?
• Primary malignant tumor of the female genital tract in the United States
Adenocarcinoma of the cervix
What is the most common one?
• Tumor of the female genitourinary tract
Leiomyoma
What is the most common one?
• Benign tumor of the ovary
Serocystadenoma
What is the most common one?
• Benign tumor of the breast
Fibroadenoma
What is the most common one?
• Benign breast tumor in females less than 35 years old
Fibroadenoma
What is the most common one?
• Histologic variant of breast cancer
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Benign lesion that affects the breast
Fibrocystic change of the breast
What is the most common one?
• Malignant tumor of the breast
Invasive ductal carcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Female genital tract malignancy resulting in death
Ovarian cancer
What is the most common one?
• Malignancy of the female genital tract
Endometrial cancer
What is the most common one?
• Tumor of the female genital tract
Leiomyoma (fibroids)
What is the most common one?
• Benign ovarian tumor
Cystadenoma
What is the most common one?
• Malignant carcinoma of the ovaries
Cystadenocarcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Stromal tumor of the ovary
Ovarian fibroma
What is the most common one?
• Germ cell tumor of the ovary
Dysgerminoma
What is the most common one?
• Tumor in men aged 15 to 35
Testicular tumors
What is the most common one?
• Testicular tumor in men over 50 years old
Testicular lymphoma
What is the most common one?
• Germ cell tumor in men
Seminoma
What is the most common one?
• Testicular tumor in infants and children
Yolk sac tumor
What is the most common one?
• Germ cell tumor in boys
Yolk sac tumor
What is the most common one?
• Malignant tumor in the bone of teenagers
Osteosarcoma
What is the most common one?
• Intraspinal tumor
Ependymoma
What is the most common one?
• Eye tumor in children
Retinoblastoma
What is the most common one?
• Organ involved in amyloidosis
Kidney
What is the most common one?
• Complication of nasogastric tube feeding
Aspiration pneumonia
What is the most common one?
• Acquired GI emergency of infancy
Necrotizing enterocolitis
What is the most common one?
• Organism associated with mastitis
Staphylococcus aureus
What is the most common one?
• Tumor in individuals exposed to asbestos
Bronchogenic carcinoma
What is the most common one?
• Proliferative abnormality of an internal organ
BPH
What is the most common one?
• Inflammatory arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis
What is the most common one?
• Form of muscular dystrophy
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
What is the most common one?
• Joint affected in pseudogout
Knee
What is the most common one?
• Route for infectious arthritis
Hematogenous
What is the most common one?
• Form of arthritis
Osteoarthritis
What is the most common one?
• Route of spread in pyogenic osteomyelitis
Hematogenous
What is the most common one?
• Bone disorder in the United States
Osteoporosis
What is the most common one?
• Primary tumor metastasis to the bone
Breast
What is the most common one?
• Bone tumor
Metastatic
What is the most common one?
• Neurotransmitter in the brain
GABA, quantitatively
What is the most common one?
• Site of a cerebral infarct
Middle cerebral artery
What is the most common one?
• Primary CNS tumor in adults
Glioblastoma multiforme
What is the most common one?
• Primary CNS tumor in children
Medulla blastoma
What is the most common one?
• Brain tumor
Metastatic
What is the most common one?
• Primary CNS tumor
Glioblastoma multiforme
What is the most common one?
• Intramedullary spinal cord tumor in adults
Ependymoma
What is the most common one?
• Location of ependymomas in children
In children, the fourth ventricle; in adults, the lateral ventricle or spinal cord
What is the most common one?
• Melanoma in dark-skinned persons
Acral-lentiginous melanoma
What is the most common one?
• Type of melanoma
Superficial spreading melanoma
What is the most common one?
• Skin tumor in the United States
Basal cell carcinoma
What is the most common one?
Site of congenital diaphragmatic hernias
Left posterolateral side of the diaphragm, usually resulting in pulmonary hypoplasia.
What is the most common one?
• Type of hernia seen in males more than 50 years old
Direct; in males less than 50 years old indirect hernias are the most common type.
What is the most common one?
• Sites for abdominal aorta aneurysm
Between the renal arteries and at the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta
What is the most common one?
• Site for atherosclerotic plaques in the abdominal aorta
The bifurcation of the abdominal aorta
What is the most common one?
• Site for an ectopic abdominal pregnancy
The rectouterine pouch (of Douglas)
What is the most common site for implantation of the blastocyst?
On the superior body of the posterior wall of the uterus
Where is the most frequent site of ectopic pregnancy?
Ampulla of the fallopian tube
What is the most common diagnosis made (or missed!) resulting in a malpractice suit?
Breast cancer
What is the most common serotype of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli?
0157:H7
What is the most common circulation Ig in the plasma?
IgG
What is the most common cancer diagnosed in men? In women?
In men it is prostate cancer, and in women it is breast cancer.
What is the second most common cancer diagnosed in both males and females?
Lung and bronchus cancer
What are the two leading causes of cancer-related death in men?
Prostate and lung cancer, respectively
What are the two leading causes of cancer-related death in women?
Breast and lung cancer, respectively.
What is the most common primary diagnosis resulting in an office visit for males? For females?
For males, HTN; for females, pregnancy.
What is the most common disease or infection reported to the CDC?
Chlamydia; gonorrhea is second (Remember, it is mandatory to report STDs to the CDC.)
What is the most common STD?
HPV
Name the most common reported STD.
• In females
Chlamydia
Name the most common reported STD.
• In males
Gonorrhea
What is the most common sexual assault?
Pedophilia
What is the most common form of elderly abuse?
Nearly 50% of all reported cases of elderly abuse are due to neglect. Physical, psychological, and financial are other forms of elderly abuse with an overall prevalence rate of 5% to 10%.
What is the most common complement deficiency?
C2 deficiency
What is the most common organ involved in amyloidosis?
Kidney
What is the most common form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the United States?
Follicular lymphoma
In which quadrant is breast cancer most commonly found?
Upper outer quadrant (left more than right)
What is the most common cardiac tumor? In what chamber does it most commonly arise?
90% of benign myxomas arise within the left atrium near the fossa ovalis.
What cerebral lobes are most commonly affected in herpes encephalitis?
Temporal lobes
What is the most common condition leading to an intracerebral bleed?
HTN
What carpal bone is most commonly fractured? Dislocated?
The scaphoid is the most commonly fractured and the lunate is the most commonly dislocated.
What is the costliest health care problem in the United States?
Alcohol and its related problems cost the country approximately $100 billion a year.
What is the most abused drug across all age groups?
Alcohol. Nearly 10% of adults have a problem with alcohol.
What are the two most common chains of the T-Cell Receptor?
α-and β-chains are on most T cells.
What is the most common form of inherited dwarfism?
Achondroplasia
What is the most common lethal AR disorder affecting white Americans?
Cystic fibrosis
What is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation?
Down syndrome (it is slightly more common than fragile X syndrome.)
What is the most common chromosomal abnormality associated with CLL?
Trisomy 12 (nearly 50% of patients with CLL have abnormal karyotypes.)
Name the most common one.
• Chromosomal disorder
Down syndrome (trisomy 21)
Name the most common one.
• Heart defect in Down syndrome
Endocardial cushion defect
Name the most common one.
• Chromosomal disorder involving sex chromosomes
Klinefelter syndrome
Name the associated chromosomal translocation.
• CML
Chromosome 9, 22 (Philadelphia chromosome)
Name the associated chromosomal translocation.
• Ewing sarcoma
Chromosome 11, 22
Name the associated chromosomal translocation.
• Adult familial polyposis
Chromosome 5, 21
Name the associated chromosomal translocation.
• Burkitt lymphoma
Chromosome 8, 14
Name the associated chromosomal translocation.
• Acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3)
Chromosome 15, 17
Name the associated chromosomal translocation.
• M3 AML
Chromosome 15, 17
Name the associated chromosomal translocation.
• Follicular lymphoma
Chromosome 14, 18
Name the associated chromosome.
• Cri-du-chat
Chromosome 5p
Name the associated chromosome.
• Patau syndrome
Chromosome 13
Name the associated chromosome.
• Huntington disease
Chromosome 4p
Name the associated chromosome.
• Familial hypercholesterolemia
Chromosome 19
Name the associated chromosome.
• Gaucher disease
Chromosome 1
Name the associated chromosome.
• Niemann-Pick disease
Chromosome 11p
Name the associated chromosome.
• Tay-Sachs disease
Chromosome 15q
Name the associated chromosome.
• Cystic fibrosis
Chromosome 7
Name the associated chromosome.
• Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
Chromosome 12
Name the associated chromosome.
• Marfan disease
Chromosome 15
Name the associated chromosome.
• Neurofibromatosis type 1
Chromosome 17
Name the associated chromosome.
• Neurofibromatosis type 2
Chromosome 22q
Name the associated chromosome.
• Down syndrome
Chromosome 21
Name the associated chromosome.
• Edward syndrome
Chromosome 18
Name the associated chromosome.
• VON Hippel-Lindau disease
Chromosome 3p
What is the most common chromosomal disorder?
Down syndrome
What is the MCC of inherited mental retardation?
Down syndrome
What is the most common lysosomal storage disorder?
Gaucher disease
What chromosome is mutant in patients with cystic fibrosis?
Patients with cystic fibrosis have a mutation in the chloride channel protein in the CFTR gene on chromosome 7.
Familial hypercholesteremia is due to a mutation in the LDL receptor gene. What chromosome carries it?
Chromosome 19
What chromosome is associated with the AR form of SCID?
Chromosome 20q (deficiency in adenosine deaminase)
On what chromosome is the adenomatous polyposis coli gene?
Chromosome 5q21
Name the associated chromosome.
• Albinism
Chromosome 11p
What mineral is associated with impaired glucose tolerance?
Chromium (Cr)
What mineral is associated with hypothyroidism?
Iodine (I)
What mineral is an important component of the enzyme xanthine oxidase?
Molybdenum (Mb)
What vitamin deficiency produces angular stomatitis, glossitis, and cheilosis?
Riboflavin (B2) deficiency
What vitamin is a component of the coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)?
Thymine (B1)
Avidin decreases the absorption of what vitamin?
Biotin. Avidin is found in raw egg whites.
What are the four Ds of niacin deficiency?
1. Diarrhea
2. Dermatitis
3. Dementia
4. Death
What mineral is an important component of glutathione peroxidase?
Selenium (Se)
What mineral deficiency in children is associated with poor growth and impaired sexual development?
Zinc (Zn) deficiency
What mineral, via excessive depositions in the liver, causes hemochromatosis?
Iron (Fe)
What vitamin is needed for the production of heme?
Pyridoxine (B6)
What vitamin is a component of the enzymes fatty acid synthase and acyl CoA?
Pantothenic acid
What vitamin deficiency produces homocystinuria and methylmalonic aciduria?
Cyanocobalamin (B12) deficiency (Folic acid deficiency has only homocystinuria as a sign.)
What vitamin deficiency is evidenced by poor wound healing, loose teeth, bleeding gums, petechiae, and ecchymosis?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency (These are the signs of scurvy.)
What are the three carboxylase enzymes that require biotin?
Pyruvate, acetyl CoA, and propionyl CoA carboxylase
What vitamin requires IF for absorption?
Cyanocobalamin (B12)
What mineral is a component of cytochrome a/a3?
Copper
Leukopenia, neutropenia, and mental deterioration are signs of what mineral deficiency?
Copper
What vitamin deficiency causes a glove-and-stocking neuropathy seen in alcoholics?
Pyridoxine (B6) deficiency
What mineral deficiency involves blood vessel fragility?
Copper deficiency
Megaloblastic anemia and thrombocytopenia are signs of what vitamin deficiency?
Folic acid deficiency
What vitamin deficiency can result in high-output cardiac failure?
Thiamine
Name the antidote.
• Carbon monoxide (CO)
Oxygen
Name the antidote.
• Mercury
Dimercaprol, penicillamine
Name the antidote.
• Isoniazid
Pyridoxine
Name the antidote.
• Atropine
Physostigmine
Name the antidote.
• Arsenic
Dimercaprol, D-penicillamine
Name the antidote.
• Digoxin
Antidigoxin Fab fragments
Name the antidote.
• Gold
Dimercaprol
Name the antidote.
• Ethylene glycol
Ethyl alcohol
Name the antidote.
• Opioids
Naloxone, naltrexone
Name the antidote.
• Organophosphates
Atropine, 2-PAM (pralidoxime)
Name the antidote.
• Warfarin
Vitamin K
Name the antidote.
• Copper
D-Penicillamine
Name the antidote.
• Heparin
Protamine sulfate
Name the antidote.
• Iron
Deferoxamine, penicillamine
Name the antidote.
• Cyanide
Amyl nitrate, sodium nitrate, or sodium thiosulfate
Name the antidote.
• Methyl alcohol
Ethyl alcohol
Name the antidote.
• Acetaminophen
N-Acetylcysteine
Name the antidote.
• Nitrates
Methylene blue
Name the antidote.
• Lead
Penicillamine, EDTA (calcium disodium edetate), or dimercaprol
Name the antidote.
• Benzodiazepines
Flumazenil
Name the antidote.
• AChE inhibitors
Atropine with pralidoxime
Name the antidote.
• Anticholinergics
Physostigmine
A known IV drug abuser goes to the ER with respiratory depression and pinpoint pupils and in a semicomatose state. What overdose do you suspect, and what agent will you give to reverse its effects?
The triad of respiratory depression, pinpoint pupils, and coma in an IV drug abuser suggests opioid overdose (e.g., heroin), and you should give naloxone.
Cherry red intoxication is associated with what form of poisoning?
CO
What toxicities are caused by the following agents?
• Occupational nitrous oxide exposure
Anemia
What toxicities are caused by the following agents?
• Methoxyflurane
Nephrotoxicity
What toxicities are caused by the following agents?
• Halothane
Hepatitis, with or without necrosis
What are the first signs of overdose from phenobarbitals?
Nystagmus and ataxia
What are the three signs of morphine overdose?
Pinpoint pupils, decreased respiratory rate, and coma
What is the major pulmonary side effect of µ-activators?
Respiratory depression
What are the two side effects of opioids to which the user will not develop tolerance?
Constipation and miosis