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73 Cards in this Set

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Definition:

when the resemblance to the tissue of origin is close
Well-differentiated
(4) signs of Malignant Cancer
Hyperchromatism;

Anaplasia (poor differentiation);

Inc Nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio;

prominent Nucleoli
the (3) types of CA from Epithelial origin
Epithelial = "Carcinoma"

Squamous Cell CA;

Adenocarcinoma;

Transitional Cell CA
Definition:

reversible pre-neoplastic growth with loss of cellular orientation, shape and size in comparison to normal tissue
Dysplasia
Definition:

a clonal proliferation of cells that is uncontrolled and excessive
Neoplasia
Order of the "-plasias" in severity
(5)
normal cells -> Hyperplasia ->
Metaplasia or Dysplasia ->
Anaplasia -> Neoplasia (Carcinoma in situ) ->
Metastasis
what cancer type is often associated w/ Desmoplasia (proliferation of fibrous tissue)?

name (3) main sites
Adenocarcinoma

sites:
Breast;
Pancreas;
Prostate
Definition:

Neoplasm derived from all (3) germ layers

where is it usually seen?
Teratoma


MC in ovaries and testis
Definition:

benign neoplasm often arising from surface or transitional epithelium

what does it look like?
Papilloma


(finger-like projections)
Difference b/t Choristoma and Hamartoma
Chroistoma:
normal tissus misplaced w/i another organ

Hamartoma:
benign, tumor-like overgrowth of cells regularly found w/i the infected organ
Definition:

denotes origin from a single precursor cell

what is opposite?
Monoclonal
(neoplastic)

opposite:
Polyclonal
(non-neoplastic)
what type of metastatic tumors are via Lymphatic spread?
spread in blood?
Carcinoma = Lymphatic


Sarcoma = Blood
Pituitary tumor Dx:

amenorrhea, infertility
Prolactinoma

(sometimes galactorrhea)
Pituitary tumor Dx:

gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults
Somatotropic (Acidophilic) adenoma
Pituitary tumor Dx:

causes Cushings disease
(secondary adrenal hypercorticism)
Corticotropic (Basophilic) adenoma
Paraneoplastic effect:

Inc ACTH -> Cushing's syndrome
Small cell CA of lung
Paraneoplastic effect:

Inc ADH -> SIADH
(2)
Small cell CA of lung;

intracranial neoplasms
Paraneoplastic effect:

PTH-related peptide -> Hypercalcemia
(5)*
Some Really Breaks My Bones:

Squamous cell CA of lung;

Renal cell CA;

Breast CA;

Multiple Myeloma;

Bone metastasis
Some Really Breaks My Bones
Paraneoplastic effect:

TSH -> Hyperthyroidism
(2)
Hydatiform moles;

Choriocarcinoma
Paraneoplastic effect:

EPO -> Polycythemia
(2)
Renal cell CA;

Hemangioblastoma
Paraneoplastic effect:

Hyperuricemia -> Gout
(2)
Leukemias


Lymphomas
Order of primary tumors that metastasize to:
Brain
(5)*
Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia:

Lung;
Breast;
Skin (melanoma)
Kidney;
GI
Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia
Order of primary tumors that metastasize to:
Liver
(5)*
Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver:

Colon;
Stomach;
Pancreas;
Breast;
Lung

(from bottom -> up)
Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver
Order of primary tumors that metastasize to:
Bone
(5)*
Bone Problems Likely to Kill:

Breast;
Prostate;
Lung;
Thyroid / Testis;
Kidney
Bone Problems Likely to Kill
Tumor marker seen in 70% of colorectal and pancreatic cancers
CEA
Malignancy w/ Chemical Carcinogen:

Vinyl Chloride
Angiosarcoma of Liver
Malignancy w/ Chemical Carcinogen:

Cigarette smoke
(2)
CA of Lung

CA of Larynx
Malignancy w/ Chemical Carcinogen:

Alkylating agents
Acute Leukemia
Malignancy w/ Chemical Carcinogen:

Asbestos
(3)
Mesothelioma;

Lung bronchogenic CA;

GI cancers
Malignancy w/ Chemical Carcinogen:

Smoked fish w/ Nitrosamines
(2)
Adenocarcinoma of stomach;

Esophageal CA
Malignancy w/ Chemical Carcinogen:

Alcohol
(2)
Mouth CA;

Esophageal CA
Malignancy w/ Chemical Carcinogen:

Arsenic
Squamous cell CA
Malignancy w/ Chemical Carcinogen:

High-fat diet
Breast CA
Malignancy w/ Chemical Carcinogen:

Naphthalene (Aniline) dyes, aromatic amines
Transitional CA of bladder
Malignancy w/ Chemical Carcinogen:

Benzene
Acute Leukemia
Malignancy w/ Chemical Carcinogen:

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
Clear cell CA of vagina
Malignancy w/ Chemical Carcinogen:

Nickel, Chromium, Uranium
Lung CA
Dx:

atrophic glossitis, esophageal webs, anemia, low iron

what CA does it lead to?
Plummer-Vinson syndrome

CA:
Squamous cell CA of Esophagus
Dx:

facial angiofibromas, seizures, mental retardation

what CA does it lead to?
(2)
Tuberous Sclerosis

CA:
Astrocytoma;
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma
what is a common skin presentation seen in malignancies of the stomach, lung, breast and uterus?
Acanthosis Nigracans
Oncogene assoc tumor:

abl
CML
Oncogene assoc tumor:

c-myc
Burkitt's lymphoma
Oncogene assoc tumor:

bcl-2
Follicular lymphoma
Oncogene assoc tumor:

erb-B2
(3)*
BOG:

Breast;

Ovarian;

Gastric CA
BOG
Oncogene assoc tumor:

ras
Colon CA
Oncogene assoc tumor:

L-myc
Lung CA

[L = Lung]
Oncogene assoc tumor:

N-myc
Neuroblastoma

[N = Neuro]
Oncogene assoc tumor:

ret
(2)
MEN types 2 & 3
Tumor assoc w/ Supressor gene:

Rb
(2)

Chromosome?
Retinoblastoma;

Osteosarcoma

chrom: 13q
Tumor assoc w/ Supressor gene:

BRCA1 and 2
(2)

Chromosome?
Breast CA

Ovarian CA

chrom: 17q, 13q
Tumor assoc w/ Supressor gene:

p53

Chromosome?
Most cancers
(Li-Fraumeni syndrome)

chrom: 17p
Tumor assoc w/ Supressor gene:

p16

Chromosome?
Melanoma


chrom: 9p
Tumor assoc w/ Supressor gene:

APC

Chromosome?
Colorectal CA


chrom: 5q
(5 letters in "polyp")
Tumor assoc w/ Supressor gene:

WT1

Chromosome?
Wilms Tumor


chrom: 11q
Tumor assoc w/ Supressor gene:

NF1

Chromosome?
Neurofibromatosis type 1
(Von Recklinghausen)

chrom: 17q
(17 letters in Von Recklinghausen)
Tumor assoc w/ Supressor gene:

NF2

Chromosome?
Neurofibromatosis type 2


chrom: 22q
(type 2 = 22)
Tumor assoc w/ Supressor gene:

DPC

Chromosome?
Pancreatic CA = PC


chrom: 18q
Tumor assoc w/ Supressor gene:

DCC

Chromosome?
Colon CA = CC


chrom: 18q
Tumor marker:

alpha-fetoprotein
(2)
Hepatocellular CA;

Germ cell tumor of testis
(yolk sac tumors)
Tumor marker:

beta-hCG
(3)
HCG:

Hydatidiform moles;

Choriocarcinoma;

Gestational Trophoblastic tumor
Tumor marker:

CA-125
(2)
Ovarian CA;

malignant Epithelial tumors
Tumor marker:

S-100
(3)*
MAN:

Melanoma;

Astrocytoma;

Neural tumors
MAN
Tumor marker:

Alkaline phosphatase
(3)*
MOP:

Metastasis to Bone;

Obstructive Biliary Dz;

Paget's Dz of bone
MOP
Tumor marker:

Bombesin
(3)
Neuroblastoma;

Lung CA;

Gastric CA
(4)* tumors w/ Psammoma Bodies
PSaMMoma:

Papillary Thyroid

Serous Papillary Cystadenocarcinoma of Ovary;

Meningioma;

Mesothelioma
PSaMMoma
Virus assoc tumors:

HTLV-1
Adult T-cell Leukemia
Virus assoc tumors:

HBV, HVC
Hepatocellular CA
Virus assoc tumors:

EBV
(2)
Burkitt's lymphoma;

Nasopharyngeal CA
Virus assoc tumors:

HPV
(3)
CAP it:

Cervical CA (16, 18);

Anal CA;

Penile CA
Virus assoc tumors:

HHV-8
Karposi's sarcoma
where is person most likely to have cancer?
Skin

(skin has highest incidence, but unable to quantify)
top (3) MCC of CA in male and female
Male:
Prostate
Lung
Colorectal

Female:
Breast
Lung
Colorectal
top (2) MCC of death from CA
in male and female
Male:
Lung
Prostate

Female:
Lung
Breast