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250 Cards in this Set

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Land bridge/migration
Siberian nomads migrate across a land bridge connecting NE Asia w/Alaska, eventually reached tip of S. America and Eastern N. America
Agricultural Revolution (prehistory)
Beginning of domesticated plants, settled village life, social complexity
Mound Builders
Mississippi/Ohio Valleys: built ceremonial mounds, declined before arrival of Europeans b/c of attacks from other tribes
"First American metropolis"
Eastern Woodland Cultures
Atlantic coastal plain: waterside villages, traveled/communicated via canoes
World Views of Native Americans and Europeans
Europeans in the colonies saw themselves as 'civilized' and natives as 'savage'
Native American society/religion
Families determined by females (contrast to European patriarchal society), less structured religion: spiritual power existed everywhere in nature
African Kingdoms
Farming skills --> increased agriculture --> increased population
2/3 of immigrants to the "New World"
Africans represented 2/3 of the immigrant population before 1750 to the New World
African Society
Matrilineal family, believed in supreme creator of the cosmos + lesser deities of natural forces, worshipped ancestors, social organization: nobility/priests, commoners, slaves (not permanent, not inherited by kids)
Black Death
1348-1349, killed 1/2 of European population, promoted unification of old nations into early states
Magna Carta
1215 - created checks and balances in political systems between King and Parliament
Impact of Monarchies/Renaissance on Exploration
Monarchies funded explorations, Renaissance peaked in the Age of Exploration
Initial aims of explores
Find sea route to Asia, tap African gold trade at its source
Marco Polo
1291 - returned to Venice with treasures from the Orient, introduced Europe to Asian goods
Prince Henry the Navigator
Dispatched Portuguese mariners to explore Atlantic Ocean
Portuguese sailing advancements
1450s - Invention of quadrant to measure star altitude, new ship designs
Ferdinand and Isabella
Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella --> Spanish golden age (united independent states)
Christopher Columbus
Unsuccessful explorations, eventually commissioned by Queen Isabella 1492
1st voyage: San Salvador, believed he had reached Asia
2nd voyage: first extended European/Native American contact - captured natives and brought them back --> beginning of Atlantic slave trade
Martin Luther
Initiated Protestant Reformation of theology
"Salvation comes through inward faith"
Denounced Catholicism (sale of indulgences, etc.), Roman authority
Reformation
Movement to cleanse Christians of corruption, struggle b/n Catholicism and Protestantism
John Calvin
Published appeal to Christians to form a personal relationship with God
Predestination (God saved a few souls at random during creation) - all Christians must believe they were saved
Calvinism - 1550s, Geneva: model Christian community
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494 - Portugal gains territory in S. America by moving Portuguese/Spanish boundary westward, to settle land dispute
Found out later: Portuguese got Brazilian "lump"
Hernando Cortes (Spanish)
1519 - Left from Spain with army and attacked Tenochtitlan (capital of Aztecs), victorious
Montezuma
King of Aztecs
Oppressed many natives, overthrown by Cortes
Columbian Exchange
Europe/Africa/Asia --> Americas:
DISEASES, sugar cane, fruit, livestock, etc.
Americas --> Europe/Africa/Asia:
Starch, crops, fowl, etc.
The Great Dying
Europeans bring lethal diseases to Americas with them --> kill millions of Native Americans
Repeated in all areas of European intrusion
Intensified by slavery/brutal treatment of natives
Bartolome de Las Casas
Priest, worked to protect Indians from exploitation (enslavement, brutal treatment)
Impact of precious metals on Europe
Spanish Empire in Americas became a mining community; natives/African slaves become first labor supply
Silver circulation --> "price revolution" (prices rise, redistribution of wealth in favor of farmers)
Spanish Armada
Dispatched 1588 by Philip in response to Elizabeth's English help of Dutch Protestants (130 ships)
2 week sea battle off English shore --> English victory --> prevented Catholic dominance, temporarily stopped religious wars
Richard Hakluyts
Advertised America's advantages:
new estates, exotic produce, free land, etc.
"Time is ripe for England to break into New World colonization"
England's rehearsal in Ireland
England tried to colonize Ireland first instead of New World.
Used brutal military conquest to gain control of the land.
Walter Raleigh and Roanoke
1585-1588 - Raleigh leads settlement at Roanoke Island off North Carolina coast
One of 1st English New World settlements
Died in attacks by local tribes, colony failed
Jamestown
1607 - Established as England's 1st North American permanent colony at Jamestown, VA
Originally to bring Christianity to natives
Wanted to find gold, trade with natives - most died and could not conquer the natives
Joint-Stock Company
Company sells shares of stock and uses the revenue to support the company
(i.e. Jamestown)
The Virginia Company
Joint-Stock Company
To bring Christianity to natives
Controlled the colony by sending merchants over to obtain occupational diversity
John Smith
Leader of Jamestown
Raided Indian corn supplies, tried to intimidate local tribes
Eventually soured native relations
Tobacco
Discovery of tobacco growing in Chesapeake
Smoking --> "Virginia's salvation"
Required big labor supply (many aspects of care needed)
Indentured Servants
Sold a portion of their working life for free Atlantic passage
Most died of disease, brutal work routine
Headright System
People given 50 acres of land for each person brought with them on the trip
House of Burgesses
Established 1619 as elected legislative body of Virginia
Began lawmaking w/Royal Governor and its council
George Calvert
English nobleman, designs Chesapeake's neighbor: Maryland
Planned as a safe haven for Catholic minority
Overtaken quickly by Protestants
Calvert tried to establish feudalism, failed
The Pilgrims
1620 - Pilgrims: 1st New England permanent settlement
Wanted to realize their own pure life
Harsh Cape Cod weather killed 1/2 of them
William Bradford
Leader of Pilgrims at their settlement of Plymouth
John Winthrop
Leader of Puritans, member of English upper class
Established communities to work for God
City on a Hill
Winthrop: "we shall be as a city upon a hill"
Puritans: examples of mission to shape an American image in future generations
Roger Williams
Denounced Puritans: couldn't separate themselves from English church, intruding on Indian land
Fled with some followers to found Rhode Island
Anne Hutchinson
Accused "holy spirit" of being absent in some ministers
Put on trial by clergy --> convicted, banished, excommunicated
Followed Williams to RI
Quakers
Founded society in Pennsylvania
Thought English church to be corrupt
"Everyone can find grace through inward light"
Heavily persecuted, deported
William Penn
Leader of Quakers
Drafted constitution, established PA as a safe haven for persecuted
Others arrive and persecute each other
King Philip's War
King Philip (native leader) forced to sign treaty putting natives under English law
Natives attack CT River Valley
Food shortage, disease --> native loss
New Englanders killed, Puritans weakened, English debt!!
Bacon's Rebellion
Nathaniel Bacon (planter) unhappy w/VA gov't's lack of protection from natives
Bacon attacks natives
Governor Berkeley sends military to attack him --> civil war
Bacon captures, destroys Jamestown
VA Assembly turns on Berkeley, makes enslavement of natives legal
Berkeley hangs 23 followers of Bacon
Led to general hatred of natives in white society
Navigation Act of 1651
Only English or colonial ships manned by English/colonial sailors could carry goods entering England/Ireland/colonies
Navigation Act of 1660
Colonial products (i.e. tobacco, sugar) can be shipped only to England or other colonies
The Glorious Revolution
James II (Catholic) becomes King of England
Protestants invite William of Orange to take over, James II steps down
Effects:
New England: New England Gov. Sir Edmund Andros removed and imprisoned
NY: Jacob Leisler establishes interim gov't, imprisoned w/arrival of real gov't for establishing gov't w/o royal instruction
MA: Interim gov't takes over, Bostonians begin idea of rejection of authority
MD: Protestant association forms, takes over Catholic gov't
VA: Attempted overthrow of Catholic gov't, Protestant Gov. removes Catholics from authority positions
Louis Jolliet, Jacques Marquette
1670s - Explorers representing New France
1st Europeans to discover Great Lakes region and Mississippi Valley
Rene Robert de La Salle
New French explorer: canoed down MS River to Gulf of Mexico, planted a settlement in Texas
Connected Canada and Louisiana by a chain of forts/trading posts
New England/New France War
Religious conflict
Armed conflict in Europe/N. America b/c natives allow French settlement, not English
English capture French center
Treaty of Utrecht
1713 - Ended New England/New France war (English victory)
England gets lots of territory, France loses a lot
Beginning of downfall of Spanish control
German-speaking Settlers
Mostly Protestant farmers fleeing German famine and war
Looking for cheap land, low taxes, military exemption
Settled b/n NY and SC, most in PA --> Mid-Atlantic becomes primarily German-speaking
Fur Trade
Altered Native American belief that heaven/animal destinies closely linked
Trappers and hunters capture animals to supply the trade, begin ignoring these beliefs
Fur traders (different nationalities) compete for client tribes
Cotton Mather
New England's most prominent Puritan clergyman
Concluded that God was angry with the clergy b/c the people had a declining faith in God
Eliza Pinckney
Wife of a wealthy SC planter
Experimented with cultivation of indigo
Indigo --> staple crop in 1740s, soon ranked among leading colonial exports
The Anglican Church in America
Not as religious as in England
Community gatherings
The Backcountry
Pennsylvania - Georgia
German and Scots-Irish settlers create small farm-based society
Small marketing towns emerge --> social life
Atlantic Basin Trading System
American economy eventually involved in trading network w/Great Britain, W. Europe, Africa, W. Indies, Newfoundland
British followed rules of mercantilism
Mercantilism
A country should strive to gain wealth by:
-Increasing exports
-Regulating production/trade
-Exploiting colonies to own advantage
The Enlightenment
European ideas about economy, universe, nature, human condition reach the colonies
American cities spread these ideas in American of European enlightenment
European thinkers: God gave humans gift of reason
Americans: God gave humans capacity to get knowledge
John Locke
Argued: God did not predetermine content of the human mind, but gave it capacity to acquire knowledge
Enlightenment thinker
Benjamin Franklin
Enlightenment thinker
Earned international reputation for scientific discoveries
Practical application of scientific knowledge
The Great Awakening
18th century America still mostly Protestant, but many didn't go to church
Religious revival begins in NJ, PA
Especially swept Puritans, small VA planters
Promoted equality through religious revival
Effects:
-Promoted religious pluralism
-Separation of church and state
-Diversity of community: unpreventable
-Change in values mixed into politics/daily life
The Half-Way Covenant
Adapted by clergy to attract church membership
-Children of church members can join without converting
Brought in many children, their children, etc.
Jonathan Edwards
Warned congregation of sins and angry God
Made people convert to be "born again"
George Whitefield
Argued: the current clergy are too intellectual/traditional to bring faith to this generation
Individuals must be responsible for their own conversion
Bicameral Legislature
2-part gov'ts, common in colonies
Lower houses: represent people at large assemblies
Higher houses: represent aristocracy at councils
All laws approved by Governor and King
Growing Power of Assemblies
Royal Governors controlled elected legislature more than the King controlled Parliament
Rise of royal gov'ts in colonies --> legislatures challenge gov'ts b/c some governors incompetent
Legislatures gradually become governing bodies reflecting needs of people
Town Meeting
Staple of Northern politics
General agreement of whole assembly - consensus
Whig Ideology
aka Republicanism, inherited from English
Main ideas:
-Concentrated power = enemy of liberty
-Too much power in a person or group --> corruption/tyranny
Defenses against concentrated power:
-Balanced gov't
-Elected legislatures
-Prohibition of standing armies
-Vigilance by people for signs of corruption in leaders
Molasses Act
1733 - Parliament adds to the list of items produced in the colonies that must be exported to England
Wanted to stop trade b/n New England and French W. Indies
Imposes tax on all molasses imported from West Indies
Many New Englanders --> smuggling, black market (defying royal authority!)
Ohio Valley
English colonial population growth --> tension b/n English and French colonists
1740s - Many move to Appalachians and beyond (Ohio Valley)
French try to block further English expansion by building forts in OH Valley, eventually drive English out by 1755
Soviet Union - Foreign Policy in 1930s
FDR recognizes Soviet gov't
Soviets agree to pay WWI debts to US, give rights to US citizens in USSR
This led to communication b/n US and USSR
Good Neighbor Policy
1934 - FDR removes US forces from Haiti/Nicaragua
Pledge: no country in this hemisphere will intervene w/any other
Trade Agreements Act of 1934
President can lower tariffs up to 50%
Cuba - Foreign Policy in the 1930s
Cuban Revolution --> lots of $ in US investments threatened
FDR sends envoys to make an agreement w/revolutionary gov't
Fulgencio Batista's coup overthrows revolutionary gov't
FDR:
- Recognizes Batista gov't
- Offers $ loan
- Removes Platt Amendment (Cuba no longer a US protectorate)
- Asks for the rights to a naval base
Hitler's rise to power/his ideas
Blamed Germany's WWI loss on Communists/Jews
Became leader of Nat'l Socialist Party of German Workers
1933 - becomes chancellor of Germany
Reichstag suspends constitution --> Hitler becomes Fuhrer and dictator
Fascist regime (political/economic power in a concentrated state)
Wanted to conquer Europe --> 1934 - announces Germany's rearmament, violating Treaty of Versailles
The Nye Hearings
Sen. Gerald P. Nye (ND) - investigated connection b/n corporate profits and US participation in WWI
Found that lots of US businessmen were working w/War Dept.: businesses making war materials had made lots of $
It could be that US was tricked into going to war by these businesses
Young people and the peace movement (pre-WWII)
Student anti-WWII demonstrations on college campuses
Some student organizations formed
Veterans of Future Wars
Future Gold Star Mothers
Ethiopia and Italy (pre-WWII)
May 1935 - Italy invades Ethiopia
Italy quickly wins (better technology)
Congress scared --> passes Neutrality Act of 1935 (President can stop arms shipments to nations at war and advise US citizens against traveling on belligerents' ships)
FDR imposes arms embargo
Italy called the war's aggressor
General Francisco Franco
1936 - Spanish civil war: Franco revolts vs. republican gov't
Germany/Italy send weapons to Franco, USSR supports Spanish republicans
US split:
Catholics, anti-Communists support Franco
Radicals support Loyalists (republicans)
Many Americans join Abraham Lincoln Brigade, go to Spain to fight fascism
Neutrality Act of 1937
Illegal for US citizens to travel on belligerents' ships
Italian embargo extended to Spain
Austria, Munich Conference, Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia
March 1938 - Hilter annexes Austria
September 1938 - Munich Conference: Hitler occupies Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia)
Hitler then takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia
Nazi-Soviet Pact
Some wanted Germany and Russia to fight each other b/c fascism/communism opposite philosophies
August 23, 1939 - they sign a non-aggression pact
Poland: September 1, 1939
Hitler invades Poland --> WWII officially begins
Britain and France come to Poland's aid (b/c of treaties)
FDR's response to Hitler's invasion of Poland
Asks for repeal of embargo, approval of sales to arms to France/Britain on cash-carry basis (w/o risk of entering war)
Albert Einstein and other scientists alert FDR that Germany is working on an atomic bomb
FDR authorizes $ for project to build the bomb first, organized 1941
"Phony War"
Britain sends army to help France against Germany b/c Germany expected to attack
Nothing happens for months --> called "phony war"
Ends April 9, 1940 - Germany attacks Norway/Denmark
Blitzkrieg
German "lightning war": armored vehicles, massive air strikes
Maginot Line
Series of fortifications to stop German invasion of France - ended up useless
Ineffective b/c Germans came around and attacked from the rear
French surrender
Destroyer-Base Deal
FDR's deal w/England:
England gets 50 American destroyers
US gets right to naval/air bases on British territory
Lend-Lease
FDR invents scheme to send things to Britain w/o getting $ in return
Calls it "lend-lease"
March 1941 - Congress passes Lend-Lease Act: ended fiction of neutrality
November 1941 - FDR extends lend-lease aid to Russia
Hitler's surprise attack on the Soviets
June 22, 1941 - Hitler suddenly attacks Soviets --> now Germany fighting on 2 fronts
Soviets now US' ally (FDR gives lend-lease aid to USSR)
US now basically at war w/Germany
Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941 - Japanese planes from aircraft carriers attack US fleet @ Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
Destroyed many ships/planed, killed many soldiers/civilians
On the same day, Japanese attack Philippines, Guam, Midway Islands, Hong Kong, Malaya
December 8 - Congress declares war on Japan
War Production Board
Created by FDR to give business contracts a guaranteed fixed profit
Office of Price Administration
Controlled prices of certain items to contain inflation
Rationed scarce items
Revenue Act of 1942
Raised taxes
More taxes on different things
National War Labor Board
Set wages and hours, monitored working conditions
Allowed workers to keep their union memberships through contracts
Japanese-American Internment
"Relocation centers" built in remote areas of the West
Japanese forced to leave their homes for these places
A. Philip Randolph
1941 - organized a march on Washington to demand equal rights for blacks --> FDR alarmed
Randolph and FDR meet:
Randolph calls off the march
FDR issues Executive Order 8802 (US' policy is no discrimination in employment in defense industries or gov't)
Fair Employment Practices Commission
Established to enforce Executive Order 8802 (US' policy is no discrimination in employment in defense/gov't)
Limited success in removing segregation
Zoot Suit Riots
Mexican Americans migrate into cities --> anti-Mexican prejudice --> violence
Americans most angry toward Mexican gang members wearing zoot suits: called "Zoot Suit Riots"
Mexican American victims arrested, not white offenders
"Rosie the Riveter"
Popular song about a girl working overtime and helping the country
Gov't had suggested it was women's patriotic duty to work on assembly lines
Women's Army Corps and WAVES
WAVES - women's branch of Navy
350,000 women join the military in WWII in these two groups, also Coast Guard and Marines
WWII - first war for women to have regular military status
Four Freedoms
January 1941 - said by FDR to be what US was fighting for
- Freedom of speech and expression
- Freedom of worship
- Freedom from want
- Freedom from fear
1942 - Year of Disaster
Japanese advances
Capture Dutch East Indies
Invade Burma, Wake Island, Guam, Aleutian Islands
US lose to Japanese at Corregidor Island
Problems in Europe
Germans invade Russia
German submarines sink British/US ships
North Africa Campaign
US/British troops attacking in North Africa
Germans attack US --> destroy large US force
The Holocaust
Nazis exterminating Jews and other groups (confirmed November 1942)
FDR takes little action b/c of US anti-Semitism, fear of mass Jewish immigration
Japanese advances
Problems in Europe
North Africa Campaign
The Holocaust
Second Front
Churchill wanted to surround Germany and not directly attack unless sure of success
Stalin wanted a second front - invasion of Europe to help Russian army
FDR agreed to second front, but this came in North Africa, not Europe --> Russia distrusts Britain/US
Dwight D. Eisenhower - WWII
Commanding general of Allied armies in N African campaign
Assistant to General Douglas MacArthur in Philippines
Battle of Coral Sea
May 1942 - US planes attack Japanese fleet to prevent invasion of New Guinea/Australia
1st naval battle fought entirely with planes
Battle of Midway - 1st major Japanese defeat, restoring some balance of power
Operation Overlord (D-Day)
June 6, 1944 - complicated operation involving lots of troops, warships, planes
US invasion of Europe through Normandy in France
Dresden
Feburary 13-14, 1945 - bombing of Dresden, Germany
Most destructive bombing raid of the war, no strategic purpose
Launched by US/British to show Stalin they were helping the Russians
Created 8-sq. mile firestorm, 135,000 civilian deaths
George Patton
General who in July 1944 led US army out of Normandy and across France
Battle of the Bulge
US stoppage of German advance
Eisenhower offers to pardon military prisoners if they fought b/c so desperate for help
Question of Berlin
Spring 1945 - tension b/n USSR and other Allies
British wanted to capture Berlin first
Eisenhower sends US troops away from Berlin to meet Russian troops
April 25, 1945 - US and Russians meet
May 2 - Russians take Berlin
Hitler commits suicide
May 8 - war in Europe ends
Who among the Allies would capture Berlin?
Yalta
February 1945 - FDR, Churchill and Stalin meet at Yalta in the Crimea to discuss peace settlements
FDR wanted USSR's help in Pacific
USSR agrees to enter Pacific war 3 months after the end of the Europe war
USSR gets some territory
Europe
Germany split, Berlin divided
USSR gets 1/2 of Poland to protect its own border
Poland gets German land in exchange
Beginning of United Nations
April 1945 - San Francisco Conference: FDR, Stalin, Churchill write United Nations Charter
General Assembly, Security Council, Int'l Court of Justice
The Manhattan Project
First organized 1941, one of the best-kept secrets of WWII
Task: to make an atomic bomb before Germany does
US' bomb successfully tested in New Mexico, but European war had already ended
Kamikaze
Japanese suicide bomber planes
These and a semi-large military are the main remaining attributes of Japanese empire in 1945
Chronology of the Atomic Bombings
August 6, 1945 - atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima
August 8 - USSR enters the war, Japan refuses to surrender
August 9 - atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki
August 14 - Japan surrenders
Post-WWII Economic Boom
Higher wages --> families could buy 'wants' in addition to 'needs'
US --> more affordable products
Post-WWII Auto Industry Expansion
Auto --> status symbol
Development of huge interstate highway system --> more auto production, prosperity
Interstate Highway Act of 1956
Worsened pollution problem, made US dependent on constant, cheap, plentiful oil
Post-WWII Housing Industry
More people began owning their own homes
GI Bill of 1944: low-interest home mortgages
Department of Defense
Rise in defense spending w/escalation of Cold War
Nat'l Security Act of 1947 - created Dept. of Defense w/$13 billion budget
This rose to $47 billion by 1953
Supported armed forces --> helped aircraft, electronic industries
Leisure Time
People had more leisure time in late 1940s-early '50s
Some thought a four-day work week would come soon
Baby Boom
Peaked 1957 as population grew post-WWII
1957: one baby born every 7 seconds
Effects:
- Many women left work to be w/their children
- More demand for diapers, baby food, etc.
- More school enrollment
William Levitt
Major figure in suburbanization movement
Builder - wanted to capitalize on the growing demand for suburb living
Used mass production as a key construction method: built houses in this fashion
Post-WWII Concern for Environment
Developments (i.e. fast-food restaurants, shopping centers, housing developments) happened w/o planning
People appreciated environment more b/c had more free time --> took vacations, etc.
1958 - Congress est. Nat'l Outdoor Recreation Review Commission
1964 - Congress passes Nat'l Wilderness Protection Act, Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
1968 - Congress passes National Trails Act
Computers
Part of a large technological development wave post-WWII
1946 - Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator built at U. of Pennsylvania
Computers --> :
- More sophisticated space exploration
- Computerization of airline, hotel, business systems
- Computer programmers in demand
Television
Developed 1930s, gained an influence on US life post-WWII
TV programs influenced lifeways, esp. with 1960 Presidential Debates
Credit Card
Expansion of consumer credit --> easier purchasing
By end of 1960s, 50 million credit cards in US
Under God and In God We Trust
1954 - Congress adds the words "under God" to pledge of allegiance b/c Eisenhower thought gov't should be rooted in religion
1955 - phrase "In God We Trust" added to all US currency
Betty Friedan
Author, wrote "The Feminine Mystique" 1963
Showed a profile of women in the 1950s-60s
Thought all they wanted was femininity and finding husbands
Alfred C. Kinsey
1948 - publishes "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male"
Shocked US w/statistics of sexual acts
Also published "...Human Female"
Opened the door to sexuality (previously thought taboo)
Beat Generation
Group of writers talking about untraditional values in their works
Stressed spontaneity, spirituality
"Intuition = more important than reason"
Helped by nationwide increase in interest for literature: paperback revolution
"The Other America"
Michael Harrington, socialist author/critic
Wrote "The Other America" 1962
Said the poor were everywhere, describing conditions of rural poor
"Jet"
Pocket-size weekly magazine w/large US circulation
Catered to national black community
The Cold War: in 2 sentences
Cause: collapses of Asian, African, Middle Eastern colonial empires
US and USSR in conflict over differences in control policies
Cause
1-sentence summary (it's possible)
American World View, post-1945
US, very powerful after WWII, wanted to get order in the world and achieve US goals:
Wanted to spread liberty, equality, democracy
Thought they could make the world stable
Soviet Aims, post-1945
Governed by strong centralized gov't
Didn't want world conquest as much as internal socialism
First wanted to rebuild agriculture, industry - needed internal security
Harry Truman - his readiness to lead and his development
Unprepared for the Presidency
Only 3 months as VP - insufficient knowledge of war issues
FDR did not confide in him
Quick responses to challenges, fast decisions on issues
Served most of FDR's 1944 term and then reelected 1948
Eisenhower's leadership style and background
Elected 1952 - 1st Republican president in 20 years
Very popular b/c warm and cuddly, but shrewd in some ways
Previous jobs: Army chief of staff, President of Columbia U., head of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Ability to get people to compromise
Truman and Eisenhower's view of Communism
Truman wanted to take charge
Eisenhower worked behind the scenes to achieve his goals, no assualts
Both liked traditional American views of self-determination, US political superiority
Thought communism to be tyranny and generally bad
Joseph Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev
Joseph Stalin - leader of USSR at end of WWII
Had almost total power, beat out all opponents decisively in 1930s
Would do anything to rebuild USSR society and still influence Eastern Europe
March 1953 - Stalin dies --> Nikita S. Khrushchev takes over (known as a bully)
Potsdam Conference
July 1945 - Truman and Stalin meet for the first time
Last meeting of the Big Three (US, USSR, Britain) during WWII
Discussed:
- Russian/Polish boundary
- Fate of Germany
- US wanting Japan to surrender
Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Speech
Response to Stalin's speech "Declaration of WWIII"
Delivered Missouri, 1946
Said "an iron curtain has descended across the continent"
Asked for association of English speakers to contain USSR
George Kennan/Mr. X/Containment
Kennan - mostly responsible for defining "containment policy"
Thought USSR would not soften b/c they were upset w/their own leaders
So, USSR should always be opposed
Kennan publishes article in "Foreign Affairs" journal under pseudonym "Mr. X"
Soviet pressure must "be contained by application of counter-force"
Revolution in Greece
Civil War in Greece: Communism vs. conservative ruling monarchy (supported by British)
February 1947 - British ambassador to US says Britain can't give Greece and Turkey military or $ anymore
The new question: would US take their place?
US Undersecretary of State: "Communist victory in Greece would make 3 continents subject to Soviet influence"
Truman Doctrine
March 12, 1947 - speech to Congress
"US must support free people who resist defeat by armed minorities or outside pressures"
Unless US steps in, free world might die: asks Congress for $ to give Turkey and Greece
Passed despite some resistance
The Marshall Plan
Secretary of State George Marshall, June 1947
- Troubled European countries should come up w/an aid program the US can deal with
- This program would help these countries and the US economy
- This would allow for political and social conditions allowing for free institutions
US eventually decides to give $17 billion to 16 countries over 4 years
Not supported by all Americans
Division of Germany
At Yalta, Allied leaders decide to use zonal occupation to take over Germany
Four zones: Russians, Americans, British, French
After WWII, European balance of power shifts: USSR threatens to dominate
Late 1946 - US and British merge their zones to help economies
Berlin Airlift
US and British Air Forces bring supplies to Berliners
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Initiated by US, 1949
Next part of containment strategy - military alliance in Europe to complement economic program
12 countries in NATO; attack against one = attack against all
NSC-68
Document written by Nat'l Security Council, 1950
Shaped US policy for 20 years
Said US' problems are huge, involving survival of civilization itself
Negotiation w/USSR is hopeless b/c they can't be trusted
US can continue in its current ways but won't achieve its goals: must increase defense spending by 15%
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)
Gov't relied on CIA in 1950s to get info about Communist moves
Established by Nat'l Security Act of 1947
Spied in foreign countries and analyzed information
John Foster Dulles
Secretary of State for most of Eisenhower's 2 terms
Wanted to move past containment and start a holy crusade for democracy
Also wanted to free Soviet-dominated countries
Mao Zedong and the Chinese Revolution of 1949
Mao Zedong - founder of branch of Communist party in China
Opposed by Nationalists (led by Jiang Jieshi)
Mao gets stronger during WWII, winning loyalty of peasants
1949 - Mao takes over, Jiang flees to Taiwan
October 1, 1949 - Mao proclaims the People's Republic of China
Reaction to Chinese Revolution in America
Caused hysteria in US
Anti-Communists blamed Truman for Jiang's defeat b/c didn't support him enough
Viewed Chinese as Soviet puppets
Korean War - Causes
Tensions remained after WWII
Korea wanted independence from Japan - Allies divide Korea along 38th parallel: Soviets accept Japanese surrender in North, US accepts Japanese surrender in South
Soviets set up gov't in North, US sets up gov't in South
Each gov't wanted to reunify Korea on its own terms
June 25, 1950 - North Korea invades South Korea
Truman's decision in response to North Korean invasion
US taken by surprise
Truman thought it would become WWIII if unchallenged
Gets US naval/air forces ready, brings Gen. Douglas MacArthur from Japan to help South Korea
Douglas MacArthur and the Invasion of Inchon
US forces bring North Koreans back to 38th parallel
UN troops cross the parallel (wanted to unify Korea under US' gov't)
Chinese mount huge counterattack --> UN forced back to parallel
Truman vs. MacArthur
MacArthur wanted retaliation air strikes on China
Truman insisted on limited war
April 1951 - MacArthur publicly declares the Korean approach wrong
Truman removes MacArthur - many Americans angered
Outcome/Impact of the Korean War
May 1953 - US threatens China w/atomic weapons
July 27, 1953 - armistice signed
Impact:
- 33,000 Americans killed in action
- 2 million Koreans dead
- First war w/integrated US military
- Huge increase in military spending (NSC-68)
- Relations w/China soured
Middle East: 1948
UN tries to split Palestine into Arab and Jewish states
Truman recognizes State of Israel
Animosity remains b/n Arabs (robbed of territory) and Jews (gained a homeland)
Arab forces (Egypt, Trans-Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq) invade Israel - Israel wins
Middle East: 1956
Arab nationalist Gen. Gamal Abdel Nasser wanted a dam on the Nile River to make electric power
US offers support, Nasser also talks w/USSR
US recalls its offer
July 1956 - Nasser seizes English-controlled Suez Canal, closes it to Israel --> England angry
October/November - Israeli, British, French invade Egypt
US sponsors UN resolution condemning the attacks (worried Nasser might turn to USSR and disrupt oil flow) --> invaders withdraw
Six Day War, Yom Kippur War
1967 - Six Day War: Israel defeats Egypt
1973 - Yom Kippur War: Egypt defeats Israel
Castro, Cuba, and 1959
1959 - Fidel Castro overthrows dictator Fulgencio Batista in Cuba
Castro takes US property in Cuba
Eisenhower stops exports, cuts diplomatic ties
Cuba turns to USSR for support
Hydrogen Bomb, ICBM, Fallout
September 1949 - US discovers that USSR has the atomic bomb too: now no longer secure
Early 1950 - Truman authorizes development of Hydrogen Superbomb, worse than atom bomb
1953 - both US and USSR find secret of H-Bomb
1957 - USSR tests their first Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM)
Fallout shelters become popular as public awareness/fear of radiation increases
Massive Retaliation, Dulles, Brinkmanship
Dulles develops policy of "massive retaliation"
- US ready/willing to use nuclear weapons against Communism
- "More bang for the buck"
- All-or-nothing: no gray area b/n nuclear war and retreat
Critics call this "brinkmanship" - careful about use of nuclear weapons
Whittaker Chambers - Alger Hiss
Chambers - former Communist, left party 1938, became editor of "Time"
Chambers charges Hiss w/being Communist in the 30s - Hiss denies it
Congressman Richard Nixon: gets Hiss to admit he once knew Chambers
Hiss sues Chambers for libel
Hiss indicted for perjury (lying under oath about relationship w/Chambers)
Proved: Communist threat exists in US
HUAC
House Un-American Activities Committee
Searched movie industry for Communist activity
McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare - his tactics and why they worked
Joseph R. McCarthy - key anti-Communist fighter in 1950s
Attacked various targets in gov't
Lots of press, TV coverage --> visibility
Went to extreme lengths to whip up anti-Communist spirit
This worked b/c people scared of Communists (thought a US communist leaked the atom bomb secret to USSR)
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Ordinary family w/2 kids
Charged w/stealing and transmitting atomic secrets to USSR
Found guilty of espionage
Sentenced to death, having "caused Korean War"
McCarthy's Downfall
Ike uneasy b/c of McCarthy's witch hunt: didn't want to challenge him b/c so popular
1953 - army drafts McCarthy's assistant and doesn't allow preferential treatment
McCarthy investigates army security
Army charges McCarthy w/going too far
Senate investigates
April-May 1954 - Army-McCarthy hearings
Showed power of TV to shape opinions: McCarthy shown as irresponsible, destructive
Senate condemns McCarthy
McCarthy stays in office but loses influence
Bay of Pigs
1960 - JFK becomes President at 43 (youngest ever)
US breaks diplomatic relations w/Cuba just before JFK takes office
CIA trains anti-Castro Cuban exiles to invade Cuba @ Bay of Pigs
(wanted to spark Cuban uprising vs. Castro)
This plan approved by JFK
April 17, 1961 - the invasion
- Cuban forces stop the exiles and US from coming ashore
- No uprising to help the invaders - US exposed as trying to overthrow Castro (broke Monroe Doctrine!!)
Cuban Missile Crisis
Castro afraid of US b/c of Bay of Pigs --> gets USSR's assistance
October 1962 - US gets pictures showing USSR had placed "offensive" missiles in Cuba
Cuba says "they're defensive, really"
JFK goes on TV to tell US about the missiles; demands their removal
Announces naval blockade to prevent more missiles
Khrushchev pledges to remove them if US ends blockade and promises to stay out of Cuba
US agrees
US ignores a request that they remove missiles from Turkey
Domino Theory
LBJ's idea (shared by JFK)
If one country in a region falls, others follow
Must keep US intact and contain communism
Ho Chi Minh
Communist organizer/revolutionary - led independence movement in Indochina to remove Japanese conquerors
1945 - establishes Democratic Republic of Vietnam (not recognized by US)
Struggle b/n Vietnamese and French (who colonized the area) --> becomes part of the Cold War
Ngo Dinh Diem
Geneva agreement --> two Vietnams:
Ho Chi Minh in power in North
Diem (anti-communist) in power in South
US supports Diem's gov't --> military advisers assist S. Vietnamese
Vietnamese military leaders assassinate Diem, seize gov't
Viet Cong
Another name for Vietnamese guerillas
Challenged S Vietnam's regime
Aided by Ho Chi Minh, N Vietnamese
Gulf of Tonkin Attack and Resolution
In Gulf of Tonkin, 30 miles from N Vietnam, N Vietnamese attack US (who had intruded on N territory)
LBJ gets authority from Congress to use necessary measures to repel them
US becomes a major force in attacking Vietnam
Vietnamization
Introduced by President Richard Nixon as part of Nixon Doctrine
Policy of removing US forces, replacing them w/Vietnamese forces
My Lai
Small village in S Vietnam
Said to be harboring 250 members of Viet Cong
US infantry comes in to clear the village - instead found civilians
US kills the civilians anyway
Whoops
Kent State
One college campus demonstration in response to Nixon's invasion of Cambodia
Police called to contain gathering student crowd
Students set Reserve Officers' Training Corps building on fire
Governor of OH orders Nat'l Guard to Kent State
Soldiers fire w/o provocation --> 4 dead, 9 wounded
Students, other Americans outraged
Detente
Nixon's steps toward advancement in foreign policy
First nuclear arms treaties: thaw in the Cold War
Opens formal relations w/China
Nixon's visit to China
Chinese friendship helpful in dealing w/USSR
Also visits Russia: first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty signed (SALT I)
- Limitation of missile stockpiles
- Working together in space race
80th Congress
New Congress convened after 1946 midterms
Both houses now dominated by Republicans and conservative Democrats
Wanted to reverse FDR's New Deal policies Truman was trying to continue
Asked for less gov't intervention in business
Taft-Hartley Act of 1947
Limited power of unions by restricting weapons they could use in striking
Revised Wagner Act of 1935 by listing unfair labor practices
Gave President the right to call for "cool-off" period afterr a strike affecting nat'l security
Required union officials to sign anti-Communist pledges
Dixiecrats
Dixiecrat Party or States' Rights Party
Formed by Democrat delegates from MS and AL, angry after Democrats take a stronger stand on black civil rights
Supported segregation
Progressive Party
Henry A. Wallace: Presidential candidate
Fired from Truman's cabinet for moderately approaching USSR
Attracted liberals
Moderate USSR/US position
Desegregation
Possible communist ties --> interest drops
Fair Deal
Name for Truman's domestic program
Components:
- Raising of minimum wage
- Expansion of social security
- Some gains in housing
- Integration of military
Ratified many ideas of New Deal, kep liberals alive
Dynamic Conservatism
One name for Ike's approach to gov't
Wanted to reduce role of executive branch, limit the role of gov't in society
The Election of 1960
JFK: gov't and Pres must be more active than in Ike's years
JFK vs. Republican Richard Nixon
First televised debates --> huge difference in campaign
JFK slimly beats Nixon
New Frontier
JFK: thought US was entering a new era, must confront new ideas/direction
Committed to extending welfare, expanding economy
Used Keynesian theory to bring US out of its recession
NASA
JFK wanted the US to put a man on the moon in the 60s
Congress puts more $ into NASA (Nat'l Aeronautics and Space Administration)
Worried about USSR space achievements
Peace Corps
Established by JFK
Sent people overseas to help in developing countries
Lee Harvey Oswald
Accused assassin of JFK in Dallas, November 22, 1963
Shot several days later in jail
Great Society
Phrase used to describe LBJ's reform program
Wanted to pick up where JFK left off:
- Reduce taxes
- Ensure civil rights
- Help public education
- Medical care for elderly
- Eliminate poverty
Achieved tax cut, began War on Poverty
Medicare and Medicaid
LBJ's programs for care for elderly
Medicare tied to social security
Medicaid helped those on welfare, who couldn't afford private insurance
These programs: most important increase of federal social benefits since Social Security Act of 1935
Immigration Act of 1965
Increased immigration limits, allowed Asian Americans/Latin Americans in
Exempted family members of US citizens, political refugees from quotas
Brought a huge stream of immigration --> more diverse population
Replaced Immigration Act of 1924
Earl Warren
Chief Justice of Supreme Court in 60s
One of 4 new liberal justices appointed by JFK/LBJ
Affirmed black support, civil liberties
Ruled against requiring of prayer in public schools
Vietnam and the Great Society
LBJ wanted to deal w/Vietnam and Great Society at the same time
Trying to do both --> inflation
Military spending, unwillingness to raise taxes --> more inflation
Congress eventually cuts Great Society programs
1968 Democratic Convention
Chicago - LBJ's VP Hubert H. Humphrey vs. Nixon
Police club demonstrators, reporters, bystanders on nat'l TV
Worked in Nixon's favor
Arab Oil Embargo
Disrupted Nixon's economy
Early 1970s - OPEC (Organization of Petroluem Exporting Countries) raised oil prices
Arab-Israeli War --> embargo on oil shipped to US (Israeli ally)
US needs these imports for energy --> shortages, high prices
Embargo ends 1974, prices stay high
Leads to unemployment, recession
CREEP
Committee to Re-elect the President
Headed by John Mitchell, former Attorney General)
Collected lots of $ to make Nixon look good
Contained intelligence branch headed by former CIA, FBI members
Watergate (extremely condensed)
June 1972 - CREEP leaders try to tap Democratic Nat'l Committee's phones
Nixon involved in trying to cover it up - hush money to leaders of CREEP
Woodward/Bernstein begin to uncover the story
One convicted burglar testifies: White House was involved
May 1973 - Senate's public hearings
- Nixon knew about the cover-up and paid hush money out
- Several forged State Dept. documents
- Nixon had a taping system in his office to record conversations
Nixon denies others' access to the tapes --> decline in popularity
House Judiciary Committee votes to impeach Nixon
Nixon releases the tapes (18.5 minutes of silence) --> his role in the cover-up made clear
August 9, 1974 - Nixon becomes 1st US president to resign, Ford takes over
Watergate --> distrust in the Presidency
Woodward and Bernstein
Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein
Reporters from Washington Post
Tracked leads to uncover Watergate
Gerald Ford
Appointed VP 1973 after resignation of Nixon's 1st VP
Became President after Nixon's resignation
Views:
- Opposed federal $ for education, poverty, mass transit
- Wanted to stop liberal advances of the 1960s
Pardons Nixon one month after his resignation
Inflation --> economic problems
- Huge recession
- Huge tax cut from Ford
Jimmy Carter
Up for election 1976 vs. Ford
Appealed to people who didn't like politics, used media (TV!) to be more direct
Never had clear political priorities
Allowed deficit spending --> liberals happy --> inflation
Could not make a good energy policy
Deregulation
Removal of gov't controls in economic life
Made liberals mad
Used this system on oil, railroads, trucking, airline industries
Fort Duquesne
Established by French at fork of OH River
Attacked by George Washington (British) - French win
Attacked by General Edward Braddock and British army
French (with help of Indians) defeat English badly
Almost all tribes north of OH River now side w/French
Albany Plan
Ben Franklin's attempt to ally the colonies
- Tried to coax Iroquois into helping
- Tried to unify the colonies
Both failed
General Braddock
British General who led Brits to Duquesne, Summer 1755
William Pitt
Becomes English prime minister in 1757, claiming to be able to save the nation
Concentrated military on colonies
English military unable to overtake French w/o Indian help
Treaty of Paris (1763)
Ended Seven Years' War
Interior Indians now depended on settlers' trade
England gets Canada and all territory east of Mississippi except New Orleans from France
Now English are the only source of trade goods for the natives
Proclamation of 1763
English gov't creates racial boundary along Appalachians from Maine-Georgia to separate natives/colonists
Failed completely (colonists didn't like being boxed in)
Ottawa chief Pontiac tried to rally tribes against English, failed
England did not adhere to the Proclamation - land speculators encroach on natives' land
Social/economic effects of Seven Years' War
Gave colonists confidence in their strength but left them w/debt and loss of manpower
Gave rise to economic development and gave colonies British $
Colonies now vulnerable to British economic stability --> economic slump
George Grenville
Chief Minister of English King George III at end of Seven Years' War
Proposes new taxes in England/America to reduce huge nat'l debt
Goals:
- Finance overtaking of French Canada/frontier
- Remind colonists they are still subjects of the crown
Initiated tension b/n England and the colonies
Sugar Act of 1764 (aka Revenue Act)
Reduced tax on imported French molasses
Added to list of products that could only be sent to England
Strengthened punishments of violators of trade laws
Currency Act of 1764
All colonies (formerly just New England) forbidden from issuing paper money
Led to constricted trade
Stamp Act of 1765
Required purchase of stamps on certain items, i.e. all paper items such as mail
Grenville gave colonists time to think of other methods of raising $
Colonists couldn't come up with anything better, although most disliked Stamp Act
Stamp Act Riots
Some VA planters already in debt (decline in tobacco prices, war taxes)
May 1765 - House of Burgesses writes 7 resolutions against Parliament
- Sent to other colonies
Boston riots
Attack property of people associated w/Stamp Act
New York, Rhode Island
Sons of Liberty led riots in these colonies
Stamp Act Congress
Stamp Act Congress
October 1765
Formal protest attended by representatives of 9 colonies
12 resolutions
- accepted Parliament's right to govern colonies
- denied their right to tax them directly (taxation w/o representation)
Declaratory Act of 1766
Parliament debates American reactions to Stamp Act, votes to repeal it
Instead passes Declaratory Act
Gives Parliament power to enact laws for colonies "in all cases whatsoever"
Beginning of feelings that Parliament is removing colonies' rights
Townshend Duties
Taxes on paper, lead, painters' colors, tea
MA House of Reps sends letter to all colonies objecting to the acts
Heavy Boston protests
England sends in troops (Redcoats) to quiet Bostonians
Bostonians begin economic boycotts
1768 - southern colonies: nonimportation agreements
Townshend Duties failed
March 5, 1770 - Parliament repeals all Townshend Duties
British troops fired upon Bostonians
MA Gov. orders British troops out
Gaspee Incident
RI colonists burn British ship Gaspee
RI court convicts captain of illegally taking what he thought was smuggled sugar/rum
Sam Adams (leader of Boston radicals) uses this event to "awaken the American colonies"
Tea Act of 1773
Allowed East India Co. to ship its tea to America
Allowed Americans to buy cheap tea in colonies and England would get the revenue
Merchants denounce Tea Act - gives East India Co. a monopoly over colonies
Boston Tea Party
Citizens vow to stop importation of the tea and send it back to England
MA Gov. refuses to give in to public demand
Bostonians sneak into the ships and throw the tea into the Boston harbor
Coercive Acts (called Intolerable Acts in Boston)
Closed Boston port to all shipping until MA paid for lost tea
Removed veto power from MA council and gave legislature body-appointing duties to Gov.
1st Continental Congress
September 1774 - Meets in Philly - delegates from all colonies (except GA)
A means of resolving differences
Issued Declaration of Rights and Resolves
Opposition to the Coercive Acts (Continental Congress)
Samuel and John Adams (MA)
Richard Henry Lee and Patrick Henry (VA)
All voice outright resistance
Declaration of Rights and Resolves
Issued at 1st Continental Congress
- Define American complaints
- Justify colonies' opposition to English
- If England did not repeal Coercive Acts by Dec. 1, a ban on all imports/exports b/n colonies, Britain, Ireland and British W. Indies would begin
Colonial unification!
General Thomas Gage
Commander-in-Chief of British forces in America
Assumes governorship of MA and places troops in Boston
April 1775 - British order Gage to arrest MA revolutionaries
Gage sends troops to steal colonial arms in Concord
First skirmish b/n Minutemen and Redcoats
Lexington and Concord
British troops sent to steal colonial arms in Concord --> 1st skirmish b/n Minutemen and Redcoats
British fight Minutemen in Concord --> word spreads to other colonies
Americans send troops to Lexington to meet British --> fighting
2nd Continental Congress
Philly, May 1775
Authorized continental army, chose George Washington as Cmdr-in-Chief
Issued Declaration of Causes of Taking-up Arms
Sent king Olive Branch Petition
Olive Branch Petition
Sent to King from 2nd Continental Congress, asking to help with peace
King rejects it and sends more troops to stop the American insurrection
Thomas Paine
January 9, 1776 - Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" appears in Philly
Clear expression of rebel thought --> more serious thinking of independence
Thomas Jefferson and
The Declaration of Independence
Declaration called for by Richard Henry Lee, June 7, 1776
Jefferson chairs committee to begin writing
Came mostly from already-written things by Congress to justify American struggles
Brought before Congress June 28
July 1 - 9 colonies vote for it, 2 against, 1 split, 1 abstains
July 2 - all colonies vote in favor except NY's abstention --> unanimous
Sent to printer July 4, 1776
General Howe and his early efforts in Boston
General William Howe - British commander
March 7, 1776 - decides to evacuate Boston b/c dangerous to move to countryside
Boston had been decimated - continued to be monitored by British for next 6 years
New York and Long Island
British officials establish new military headquarters in New York City
Contained harbor @ Hudson River --> access to middle states' grain, livestock
Summer 1776 - Washington moves army South from Boston to challenge British for control of NYC
Washington defeated at Battle of Long Island
Late October - NYC still under British control
Trenton and Princeton
December 1776 - Washington defeats British at Trenton
January 1777 - Washington defeats British at Princeton
Rebels' primary goal = survival
Washington's style of fighting
Knew that British were too powerful for rebels
Could not lose or else independence would be lost
Decided to avoid major battles, harass British and invoke costs upon them
Saratoga
October 1777 - American victory at Saratoga, NY
Stopped the recent British wave of victories
Articles of Confederation
Written by committee headed by John Dickinson
Compromise b/n one gov't vs. confederation of states' gov'ts
Powers given to federal gov't:
- Regulate foreign affairs
- Declare war
- Mediate boundary disputes
- Manage post office
- Administer relations with Indians living outside state boundaries
Powers denied to federal gov't (some given to states):
- Could not raise troops/levy taxes, but could ask states for support
- Each state to retain its freedom, independence
- Amendments possible only through unanimous agreement
Problems w/the Articles of Confederation
War still continuing while waiting for unanimous ratification
Congress sometimes paralyzed b/c needed 9-vote majority on most decisions
States had only one vote and often disputes kept states from voting at all
Washington criticized Congress for inability to support the army
1778 - Congress gives Washington power to manage the war on his own
British Revolution in the South
War in N became a stalemate --> British decide to invade S
Loyalists would respond to British
S'ern coastline good for British navy
Slaves: lured to British favor?
December 1778 - British take Savannah, major GA port
May 12, 1780 - Charleston surrenders to British control after 1-month siege
Costliest American defeat of the war
Camden, SC - British commander Cornwallis kills/captures nearly 2000 Americans
Temporarily destroys S'ern continental army
March 1781 - Guilford Court House, NC - Cornwallis wins but retreats to Wilmington b/c large cost
April 1781 - Cornwallis moves to Virginia b/c VA supplying goods to rebels
Cornwallis defeats VA, but another large cost so goes to Yorktown for protection
The French, The French, The French
1778 - French gov't signs treaty w/American Congress: will send its navy into the war
August 30, 1781 - French arrive off Yorktown coast and establish naval superiority
Help to win Yorktown