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17 Cards in this Set

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John Cabot
(1497); Sailed to the Northeastern coast of North America on an expedition sponsored by King Henry VII (Unsuccessful expedition search for Northwest passage through New World to Orient)

Importance:
Martin Luther
(1517); Leader of the Protestant Reformation. Challenged the basic practices and beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church (led followers out of the Roman C.C. after excommunication by Pope)

Importance: Religious motive for colonization (freedom for Luther's followers from Roman Catholic Church)
Mercantilism
Belief that one person or nation could grow rich, only, at the expense of another nation; one nation's economic health depended on selling as much as possible to foreign lands and buying as little as possible from them

Importance: Increased attractiveness of acquiring colonies
Separatists
Most radical of the Puritans -- determined to worship in their own independent congregations (despite English laws that required all subjects to attend regular Anglican services)

Importance:
Roanoke Island
(1585); Established by Sir Richard Grenville (cousin of Sir Walter Raleigh) -- FAILED

(1587); Raleigh re-established colony with expedition of 91 men, 17 women, and 9 children

(1590); John White (commander of the expedition) returned to Roanoke and found island utterly deserted

Importance:
Virginia Dare
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"starving time"
(Winter of 1609-1610); Europeans whom settled Jamestown suffered immensely because of the lack of food and supply -- local Indians killed of the livestock in the woods and kept the colonists barricaded within their palisade

"Europeans lived on what they could find: "dogs, cats, rats, snakes, toadstools, horsehides and even the corpses of dead men"

Importance:
John Rolfe
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"headright system"
Incentive (bribe) encouraging workers and families to come and cultivate tobacco; an individual "headright" equated to 50 acres of land -- system encouraged families to migrate (the more the family members who migrated to America, the more "headrights" or land, the family would receive)

"Headright" incentives -- workers who already lived within the colony received two "headrights" and each new settler received a single "headright" for him/herself; those who paid for the passage of an immigrant to America received an extra "headright" for each new arrival

Importance:
"1619"
(July 30th, 1619); Delegates from various communities met as the "House of Burgesses" (first elected legislature within what was to become the United States)

Importance:
House of Burgesses
(1619); First elected legislature -- promised to the male colonists the same rights of Englishmen (as provided in the original charter of 1606), which would end the strict and arbitrary rule and give the opportunity to share in self-government

Importance:
Massachusetts Bay Company
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John Winthrop
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"City upon a hill"
John Winthrop's model of holy commonwealth for Massachusetts (for the corrupt world to see and emulate) --

Importance:
Roger Williams
"Founder" of Rhode Island; controversial young minister and confirmed Separatist who argued that the Massachusetts church should abandon all allegiance to the Church of England AND that the land the colonists were occupying belonged to the natives

(Winter 1935-1936); Williams found refuge with Narragansett tribesmen (escaping deportation from the colonial government) and the following spring purchased tract of land from the tribesmen and created the town of Providence

(1644); Obtained a charter from Parliament and afterwards established a government similar to that of Massachusetts BUT without ties to the church

Importance: Rhode Island became the first colony in which all faiths (including Judaism) worshipped freely -- religious freedom
Anne Hutchinson
Posed serious threat to the spiritual authority of the established clergy by arguing that many of the clergy were not among the "elect" and were, therefore, entitled to spiritual authority (Antinomian heresy)

Challenged prevailing assumptions about the proper role of women in Puritan society

Delivered open attacks on members of the clergy

(1638); Convicted by the Massachusetts hierarchy of heresy and sedition (punishment: banishment)

Importance:
Metacomet (King Philip)
(1675); "King Philip's War"; Leader of the Wampanoags who rose up and resisted against the English in one of the bloodiest and most prolonged encounter between whites and Indians ("King Philip's War)

(Beginning of 1676); Metacomet (King Philip) ambushed and killed by group of white settlers and an ally Mohawk group

Importance: Preserved alliances between tribes and allowed tribes to band together and fight against white settlers/colonists -- [[Following the death of Metacomet (King Philip) the fragile alliance between tribes broke and the white settlers/colonists rose up and crushed the uprisings of the natives]]