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25 Cards in this Set

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Potsdam Conference July 1945
Last meeting of the Big Three in WWII.
Truman and Stalin discuss nuclear advances in the US.
The Baruch Plan
Called for disclosure by all UN member nations of nuclear research and materials, creation of an international authority to ensure compliance, and destruction of all U.S. atomic weapons once first steps were completed.
Proposal by Truman to UN for international control of atomic power.
Truman Doctrine March 1947
Came about from the threat of communism in Greece and Turkey.
US aids Greece and Turkey in their fight against communism and claims to help any other country in need if they are being put under communist pressure.
Article "X" and Gearge Kennan
State department’s leading expert on Soviet affairs.
Explained that the US foreign policy needed a long term, patient but vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies.
Became the principle for the Truman Doctrine
Truman's Loyalty Program
Executive Order 9835
Screened all government employees for backgrounds in communistic organizations or current communistic ties
National Security Act of 1947
Transformed the old Navy and War departments into the new Department of Defense
Instituted National Security Council with broad authority over planning foreign policy
Established Air Force as separate service equal to Army and Navy
Created CIA
Marshall Plan
Provided funding to European countries to rebuild physically and economically after WWII
Created to help prevent spread of communism through Western Europe
Election of 1948
Truman wins election
Runs against Thomas E. Dewey (Rep)
Also ran against Strom Thurmond of Dixicrats
Significant b/c it fractures the Democratic Party over the issue of Civil Rights
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Worldwide system of military alliances in April 1949
US, Canada, and 10 European countries
NSC-68
Top-secret policy paper that provided blueprint for rhetoric and substance of future Cold War Policy
Urges US to launch full-scale offensive measures to enlarge US power against the Soviets and spread of communism
Korean War
38th parallel division
North-Communism, South-Capitalism
US aids South Korea but ends up getting pushed back to the 38th parallel in the end
Korean War's Effect on Containment
-focused american foreign policy on anticommunism and justified global offensive that NSC-68 recommended
-In French Indo-China, truman provided assistance to strengthen French efforts against communist led independence
-atomic energy commission created in 1946 to replace the manhatten project in overseeing nuclear development
Taft-Hartley Act
-Negated some of the gains unions had achieved in the 30s
-limited union's power to:
*conduct boycotts
*compel employers to accept "closed shops" in which only union members could be hired
*conduct a strike that the president judged against national interest
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
part of truman's loyalty program
conducted the "hollywod 10" hearings
Alger Hiss and Whitaker Chambers affair
Dismissed hundreds of government employees
McCarran-Walter Act
placed greater barriers to immigration from areas outside northern and western Europe and on the entry ot people who immigration officials suspected might bring in dangerous ideas(communism)
Dr. Alfred Kinsey's research on sexual behavior
Gays formed the Mattachine Society (1950)
Lesbians founded Daughters of Bilitis (1955)
Claimed that homosexuality was just another form of sexuality and should be tolerated
Created a connection between anticommunist and antihomosexual rhetoric
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Only people tried, convicted, and executed on counts of espionage (leaking info to the Russians about nuclear developments)
Dennis v.US 1951
Convictions of the Communist Party leaders appealed to the Supreme Court
McCarren Internal Security Act 1950
authorized the detention, during any national emergency, of alleged subversives in special camps
Created the Subversive Activities Control Board (SACB) to investigate organizations suspected of being affiliated with the communist party and to administer the registration of organiztions allegedly controlled by the communists
McCarthyism
Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin
Charged in 1950 that hundreds of communists were at work in truman's state department
Army-McCarthy hearings
-Downfall of McCarthy
-Joseph Welch calls him out
The National Association of Manufacturers (NAM)
warned that new domestic programs would destroy the private free-enterprise system
(Truman's Fair Deal)
Employment Act of 1946
called for maximum employment and specifically acknowledged that private enterprise, not government, bore primary responsibility for economic decision making
Gross National Product (GNP)
helped post-war experts calculate the nations growing economic bounty
-the total dollar value of all goods and services produced in the nation during any given year
Truman's "Fair Deal"
He called for:
-extension of popular New Deal programs such as social security and minimum wage laws
-enactment of democratic-sponsored civil rights and national health care legislation
-federal aid for education
-repeal of Taft-Hartley Act
Social Security Act of 1950
expanded retirement portions
coverage extended to more than 10 million people including agricultural workers
increased level of benefits