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162 Cards in this Set

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Detals of Roanoke?
-Secure from Indians and Spanish
-
Four theories about Roanoke's dissapearance?
-Local Indians attacked (Croatans)
-Indians took them in.
-Spanish captured them.
-They tried to leave, failed.
The Virginia company was a what?
joint-stock company
What kind of orientation were the Jamestown colonies put at?
North East
Why is Jamestown in the Northeast area?
-To find a path to the pacific ocean
-
Why were the Jamestown ships not told who their leader is?
Keeps people on the 3 ships calm.
Who is John Smith? Why was he sent?
The SOLDIER sent along to Jamestown, to help defend the colony.
What was the James river named after?
King James.
Who was the first leader of Jamestown?
John Smith
What was John Smith's rule?
"He that does not work, shall not eat."
What kind of threats did Jamestown face?
-Confederation of Indians
-Mosquitoes(the biggest threat)
Who led the indian confederation near Jamestown?
Powhatan (Pocohontas' father)
Jamestown is an island in a ____.
swamp.
How does Powhatan see the Jamestownians?
1. They're dumb
2. They have cool stuff
3. As a member of the 32nd tribe.
How do the currents affect Jamestown?
The water on the river is in a circular current, so their garbage comes back.
What do they find in Jamestown, as an export?
Tobacco
What was Jamestown's big purpose?
Tobacco.
Who replaces John Smith?
George Yeardley
What assembly does Yeardley create, and where?
The House of Burgesses (General Assembly) in Jamestown.
What is a Burgess?
Someone who represents people.
What is the first example of representative government in North America?
House of Burgesses in Jamestown, and it happens BEFORE THE PILGRIMS ARRIVE.
How many black were sent to Jamestown originally? As what?
20, as INDENTURED SERVANTS.
There are blacks in Jamestown ____ the pilgrims.
BEFORE.
Why is 1619 important?
-House of Burgesses started
-20 black people, not as slaves
-87 women
Women came over to James for how much a piece?
for free..and then auctioned off. This is important because with their arrival, the Jamestown was now permanent.
Why was women brought over to Jamestown important?
Jamestown is now permanent.
Who takes over after Powaton dies?
His brother.
What does Powaton's brother do to handle the growing colonies?
He attacks Jamestown, wipes out 50% of the people.
What were the Tide Water wars?
The war between Jamestown and the Indians.
How do the surviving colonists of the Indian attack handle the situation?
They began a MILITIA SYSTEM.
Why does the militia of Jamestown target the villages?
-Attacking the women and children because they don't move.
How long does the Tidewater war last?
10 years.
How do the Tidewater wars end?
Indians surrender.
Why is the Tidewater war important?
1. The colonists win, so the militia works for them, so they DON'T NEED AN ARMY.
2. Temporariy eliminated indian opposition to the Virginia area.
3. The Indians are evil cause they attacked on good friday. They must work for Satan.
What were the Pilgrims?
PURITANS.
What did the Puritans want to do?
PURIFY the Anglican church.-
The Puritans were a movement who were ____.
separatists.
What is a Separatist?
A puritan that believes they need to separate from the Anglican church.
Pilgrims = ____
separatists.
Where did the Puritans first try to go to?
Holland.
What ship did the Puritans ride?
The Speedwell
How did the Puritans end up on the Mayflower?
Speedwell sank, they hopped on a ride, got lost, ended up in Massachusetts.
Who was Squanto?
Indian that stumbled upon the Puritans...he says "Welcome". He went to Oxford.
The chief of the Wambanoak was who?
Massasoit
What's the one fundamental issue for the Puritans?
the soil and Winter
Who led the second group of Puritans?
Winthropp
READ ABOUT THE PURITAN MIGRATION
NOW
Who forms the Massachussets Bay colony?
Winthropp.
Who did the puritans call "King Phillip"?
Metacom
Why does "King Phillip" strike? What does he do first?
He was mad about Puritan expansion. But he sends warning to the people who had been nice to his family...
What was King Phillips war like?
Started by "King Phillip", his wife and son are captured, he surrenders, Puritans cut off his head and mutilate him.
The puritans learned what from winning the King Phillip's war?
-Militia work
-Expansion is ok
-Indians are barbarians
What are the 2 firmly established colonies now?
Chesapeake and New England
What's between the two colonies?
The Middle Colonies
What are the 3 major rivers near the Middle Colonies?
Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna
Our rivers were our ___.
HIGHWAYS
Why were the 3 rivers important to the middle colonies?
Controlling rivers meant you control the port down South's trading posts, which become CITIES.
The 5 largest cities in colonial america?
Philadelphia
New York
Boston
Charlestown
Newport
What is the second biggest city in the British empire?
Philadelphia
All the 5 major colonial cities were where?
ON RIVER PORTS.
What are colonial fire extinguishers?
sand buckets
Where do the rocks in paved colonies come from?
Boats used to use rocks to keep their ships balanced, which are used for streets.
Personal communication in the colonies was ____.
non-existant
What kind of communication DID exist in the colonies?
NEWSPAPERS
Early colonial education came from where?
Parents and the Church (unless you were rich, who could send their children to European schools)
What are 3 points about history we should consider?
-Bias
-Consider our source
-Historians disagree
Where were the first americans from?
Crossing into North America via the Bering straight.
What are the three areas of US CULTURE (not history)?
Lithic, Archaic, and Formative phases
What was the Lithic period?
Stone tools, hunters and gatheres, ended thousands of years ago.
One of the biggest problems of sending rich kids to Europe for education?
They become less religious
What was the Archaic phase?
nomadic people, seasonality, people stay in one place longer.
What was the Formative phase?
Lived in fixed places, farmers, most advanced.
What was the response to Diesm in America?
The Great Awakening, the first mass movement in North America
What were the 3 Formative socieities?
Mayans, Aztecs, Incans
Who were the 2 big players of the Great Awakening?
Edwards
Whitefield
What was Edwards like?
A preacher with good imagery, was not emotional
What were the Mayans like?
Similarity to Greeks, very advanced.
Who defeated the Mayans?
The Toltecs.
Who defeated the Aztecs?
Cortez
What were the Aztecs like?
Similar to Romans, had a capital city.
What were the Incanslike?
King was a dictator, had a road system
Was the Great Awakenign successful?
Yes, VERY
What were the North American formative groups?
Pueblos, Cahokia
5 Lessons of the Great Awakening?
1. Implanting permanently evangelical principals
2. Weakened the old-fashioned clergy AND encouraged self-judgement.
3. Encouraged the proliferation denominations and toleration of dissent.
4.
What were the Cahokia like?
Had a HUGE city, used river transportation
How did the Norse get to North America?
Island Hopping
Where did the Norse start?
Scotland, then Iceland, then Greenland, then North America
Who founded Greenland?
Eric the Red.
Greenland's founding leads to what?
trade with the motherland
Who was Bjarni Herjuffs?
Shitty navigator who spots North American islands.
What was the Renassaince?
Romanticizing of Greek culture, world is known to be round.
What did Pierre deAilly write?
Imago Mundi, a round Atlas
How did Colombus sail?
"Deck reckoning"
5 lessons of the great awakening?
1. Implanting permanently evangelical principals
2. Weakened the old-fashioned clergy AND encouraged self-judgement.
3. Encouraged the proliferation denominations and toleration of dissent.
4.Emphasized power of individual choice and popular resistance to established authority.
5. America was the promised land.
Describe Amerigo Vesupcci?
First man to say "New World", was a bragger.
What was the Columbian Exchange?
Biological and cultural exchange between OLD and NEW world.
What was a drawback of the Columbian Exchange?
Diseases exchanged to Native Americans, which killed CHILDREN and ELDERY>
First mass movement in American history?
Great Awakening
The vast majority of native americans died from ____.
disease
Slave markets were originally built for___
Indian AND black slaves.
Why were Africans chosen as slaves?
-They did not the land
- Had immunities
What were the 2 expeditions from the Spanish into North America?
Desoto and Coronodo
What was Desoto's expedition like?
Goes into Tamp and SE area, founds St. Augustine.
What was Coronodo's exposition like?
Arizona, Kansas, up North. founded Santa Fe.
Why don't we speak Spanish?
The Protestant Reformation and the defeat of the Spanish empire.
What were the 2 reasons for the American revolution?
1. Beliefs in the results of the Great Awakening
2. Beavers (fur trade)
Why did the French control the fur trade?
the English were pinned by the apalachians
What are the reasons the English could still have a shot at the fur trade?
1. Numbers
2. Naval Superiorty
Both the English and the French tried to get who to get fur for them?
Indians, who preferred the French.
How did English counter French advantages with Indian relationships?
The English made better offers.
Who do the French alliance with?
Algonquians
Who do the English alliance with? (Indians)
Iroquois
What comes out of Indian alliances with Europeans?
Dependency on European trade.
After beavers are wiped out, what happens?
The French Revolution. The English- and French- supported indians go into new areas for fur which drag in the big countries.
What is the consequence of the Seven Years War?
-British don't see the US as good soldiers
-Americans are underestimated
-Americans seen as second-class
-Debt for the British
What is Salulatory Neglect?
Ignoring that the American colonies were trading with others.
How did the British crackdown on the US colonies for trade?
Navigation Acts
What was Pontiac?
begins a pan-indian movement in Pontiac's rebellion to force the British back to the Atlantic. (He succeeds)
After Pontiac's rebellion, how did the English colonies respond?
Asking for British assistance
Who led the attack against Pontiac?
Gage
What is the Proclamation Line?
The line of where the colonists had to stay East of, to keep tensions down.
Whas the final-straw tax?
The Stamp Act tax on US colonies which led to people thinking they need to respond to this.
What was the Stamp Act Congress?
The group of US colony delegates gathered in Albany to determine what do do about these taxes.
What did the Stamp Act Congress come up with?
The Nonimportant Agreement, a boycott.
Why was the name "Sons of Liberty" chosen?
To avoid negative names
What did the Sons of Libert do?
1. Enforced boycotts
2. Harassed tax collectives
3. Spread propagation
What was the Committees of Correspondence and Safety?
group that coordinated the Sons of Liberties
Who was Sam Adams?
One of the leaders of the Committes of Corresponoen
Who has to deal with all the vandalism in the colonies?
Gauge
Who does Gauge have to go after, in particular?
Hancock and John Adams
John Adams lived physically ___
in Boston.
Gauge can't catch Adams or Hancock, so what does he do?
Goes to the magazine in Concord, Massachussetes, by marching at night, to remove the guns
Joseph Warren was the leader of who/
the Boston Sons of Liberty
How far is Concord from Boston?
16 miles
Who does Joseph Warren call on to ride to Concord and warn that British are coming to take weapons.
Paul Revere and Dawes
What are the 2 reasons for their ride?
1. Warn the British are coming.
2. Warn Adams and Hancock
Who was Samuel Prescott?
man at the tavern who overhears revere and dawes warning them, and wants to ride with them.
Who makes it to Concord?
Prescott
Who is John Parker?
Lexington Militia captain
What does Parker do with the Lexington militia?
he scatters the Lexington militia because he doesn't think anyone is coming
What does the British major John Pitcairn suggest?
send some British soldiers, 180 or so, up ahead.
What instructions were Pitcairn given?
Make sure that if there's a fight, let them fire first.
Who was Benjamin Church?
A member of the Boston sons of liberties, who was at the tavern with Hancock and Adams, and was a British spy.
Who was Israel Putnam?
Commander at Breed's Hill (he's a veteran).
What did Israel Putnam say?
1. Don't fire til you see the whites of their eyes
2. Aim for their knees.
What was the loss at Breed's Hill importance?
This is 8 years before the end of the war, yet 1/8th of all British soldiers wounded in the whole war were wounded here. 1/6th of all british officers killed were killed here .
The revolution leads to liberty for who?
Rich white males.
What is the post-revolution situation like at first?
uncertainW
What is one major thing created out of the revolution?
A civil-military relationship...civilians control the military. President controls the army, congress has to approve funding, congress is elected.
What's the problem of forming a standing army during a revolution?
They could become the new controllers.
In the revolution, we begin thinking of war along what lines?
Destroying crops or manufacturing targets. The *line between soldier and the civilian is blurred*
What is Limited War?
War only aimed at soldiers.
What are the 3 events that feed into the post-revolution changes, new Newburg, New York
-Newurg Conspiracy
-Society of the Cincinnati
-Regimental Mutinies
After the British surrender of Yorktown, where does the military go?
Newburgh where the British are.
What did the American officers threaten?
Give us half pay for life, or we'll overthrow the government.
What was the Society of the Cincinnati?
A fraternity of union officers, to get back together every year. Has its own bank account, has dues, "Former Continental Army officers"
In APRIL 1783, what did Congress declare? Why is this bad?
war is over...but Britain didn't sign this til September. Officers can't leave til Britain agrees...and ENTIRE regiments mutiny.
How did the Confederation government deal with the threat of military becoming too powerful?
Questioned if they should keep a standing army.
What were "Sentiments on a Peace Stablishment" and its main points?
Washington's concession that a standing army is necessary, with 4 points:
1. Keep the army, 2631 men.
2. Keep state militia, but nationalize them (homogeneous training)
3. You need manufacturers for the army, and places to put it.
4. Schools with military science.
What happens to the "Sentiments of a Peace Establishment"?
Rejected because of the Newburgh Conspiracy, Society of the Cincinnati, and Regimental Mutinies.
What was the army sized after the revolution?
80 men and officers.
The main reasons to fix the Articles of Confederation were?
1. National security
2. Lack of powers
3. Bad economy