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19 Cards in this Set

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New Immigrants
Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe who formed a recognizable wave of immigration from the 1880s until 1924, in contrast to the immigrants from western Europe who had come before them. These new immigrants congregated in ethnic urban neighborhoods, where they worried many native-born Americans, some of whom responded with nativist anti-immigrant campaigns and others of whom introduced urban reforms to help the immigrants assimilate.
settlement houses
Mostly run by middle-class native-born women, settlement houses in immigrant neighborhoods provided housing, food, education, child care, cultural activities, and social connections for new arrivals to the United States. Many women, both native-born and immigrant, developed life-long passions for social activism in the settlement houses. Jane Addams' Hull House in Chicago and Lilliam Wald's Henry Street Settlement in New York City were two of the most prominent.
Liberal Protestants
Members of a branch of Protestantism that flourished from 1875 to 1925 and encouraged followers to use the Bible as a moral compass rather than to believe that the Bible represented scientific or historical truth. Many Liberal Protestants became active in the "social gospel" and other reform movements of the era.
Tuskegee Institute
A normal and industrial school led by Booker T. Washington in Tuskegee, Alabama. It focused on training young black students in agriculture and the trades to help them achieve economic independence. Washington justified segregated, vocational training as a necessary first step on the road to racial equality, although critics accused him of being too "accomodationist."
land-grant colleges
College and universities created from allocations of public land through the Morrell Act of 1862 and the Hatch Act of 1887. These grants helped fuel the boom in higher education in the late nineteenth century, and many of today's public universities derive from these grants.
pragmatism
A distinctive American philosophy that emerged in the late nineteenth century around the theory that the true value of an idea lay in its ability to solve problems. The pragmatist thus embraced the provisional, uncertain nature of experimental knowledge. Among the most well-known purveyors of pragmatism were John Dewey, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., and William James.
yellow journalism
A scandal-mongering practice of journalism that emerged in New York during the Gilded Age out of the circulation battles between Joseph Pulitzer's NEW YORK WORLD and William Randolph Hearst's NEW YORK JOURNAL. The expression has remained a pejorative term referring to sensationalist journalism practiced with unethical, unprofessional standards.
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
An organization founded in 1890 to demand the vote for women. NAWSA argued that women should be allowed to vote because their responsibilities in the home and family made them indispensable in the public decision-making process. During World War I, NAWSA supported the war effort and lauded women's role in the Allied victory, which helped to finally achieve nationwide woman suffrage in the Nineteenth Amendment (1920).
World's Columbian Exposition
Held in Chicago, Americans saw this World's Fair as their opportunity to claim a place among the world's most "civilized" societies, by which they meant the countries of western Europe. The Fair honored art, architecture, and science, and its promoters built a mini-city in which to host the fair that reflected all the ideals of city planning popular at the time. For many, this was the high point of the "City Beautiful" movement.
Jane Addams
Born in Illinois, she was one of the first generation of college-educated women in America. Upon her graduation she sought other outlets for her large talents than could be found in teaching or charitable volunteer work. Inspired by a visit to England, she acquired the decaying Hull mansion in Chicago in 1889. There she established Hull House, the most prominent American settlement house and an example for other women to follow.
Charles Darwin
English naturalist who proposed the theory of evolution through "natural selection" and rejected the "dogma of special creations."
Booker T. Washington
An ex-slave and the foremost champion of black education, he slept under a board sidewalk to save pennies for his schooling. Called in 1881 to head the black normal and industrial school, Tuskegee Institute, he taught black students useful trades so they could gain self-respect and economic security. His self-help approach was labeled as "accommodationist" because it stopped short of directly challenging white supremacy.
W.E.B. Du Bois
A black leader who assailed Washington as an "Uncle Tome" who was condeming their race to manual labor and perpetual inferiority. Born in Massachusetts, he helped found the NAACP before ultimately renouncing his citizenship in 1961 at the age of 93.
Joseph Pulitzer
The near-blind, Hungarian-born journalistic tycoon was a leader in the techniques of sensationalism in St. Louis and especially with the NEW YORK WORLD.
William Randolph Hearst
Expelled from Harvard for a crude prank, this journalistic tycoondrew on his California father's mining millions as he built a powerful chain of newspapers beginning with the SAN FRANCISCO EXAMINER in 1887.
John Dewey
A philosopher, he demonstrated his faith in the unity of theory and practice by becoming a public intellectual and social activist. He founded that Laboratory School at the University of Chicago to experiment with an educational philosophy rooted in "learning by doing." He worked with progressive reformers and championed democratic ideals and anti-Stalinist agitation. He urged philosophers to abandon futile debates about knowledge in favor of tackling the real "problems of men."
Horatio Alger
A Puritan-reared New Englander, he wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction using the stock formula of a poor boy who through a combination of virtue, honesty, hard work, and bravery could achieve success, wealth, and honor- a kind of survival of the purest. Accused of sexual impropriety, he nevertheless implanted in his readers moral lessons and the conviction that there is always room at the top (especially if you save and marry the boss's daughter).
Mark Twain
Christened Samuel Langhorne Clemens, he served for a time as a Mississippi riverboat pilot before entering into a career as a writer. Leaping to fame with THE CELEBRATED JUMPING FROG OF CALAVERAS COUNTY and THE INNOCENTS ABROAD, he teemed up with Charles Dudley Warner to write THE GILDED AGE. He typified a new breed of American authors in revolt against the elegant refinements of the old New England school of writing.
Carrie Chapman Catt
The leader of a new generation of women's suffrage movement, she linked allowing women to vote to enabling them to effectively perform their traditional roles related to the health and education of family.