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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
GI Bill of Rights
•A law passed by Congress after WWII to encourage veterans to get an education by paying a lot of their tuition.

•Offered one year’s worth of unemployment benefits while vets looked for jobs after coming home

•Offered low interest loans that many returning WWII vets used to buy homes
•There was a major housing shortage when all the WWII vets came home

•Builders created a way to mass produce houses and built entire new neighborhoods in the suburbs

•Suburbs are the area outside of a city that are neither urban nor rural. After WWII (with the help of the GI Bill’s low interest loans), many families bought homes in the suburbs.

•Suburbs grew rapidly after WWII, as did roads and highways to keep up with the growth.
Post WWII problems
• The economy no longer needed to mass produce weapons, so over a million defense workers were laid off
• Add to this all the WWII vets who came home and didn’t have jobs
• Unemployment rose and prices went way up
• The economy quickly recovered, though, as people who were deprived of goods for so long during the war began to buy a lot of things after the war – this helped stabilize the economy.
Desegregation of the Military
•After WWII, much racial violence erupted, especially in the south

•President Truman worked hard towards ensuring African Americans equal rights

•In 1948, he made an executive order (as good as a law) calling for “equality of treatment and opportunity in the armed forces without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin.”
Brown v. Board of Education
•1954 Supreme Court ruling which ended segregation in schools (and later, everywhere else, too). It said that public schools MUST integrate “with all deliberate speed.”

•Many school districts, especially in the south, resisted this forced integration.

•Thurgood Marshall, and African American, was the lawyer on the case.
Rosa Parks
• Rosa Parks was a quiet African American woman who was simply riding the bus home from her job as a seamstress.
• Jim Crow Laws said that A.A.’s had to sit in the back of the bus
•Rosa Parks WAS sitting in the back, but the understanding was that if the bus got full of whites, blacks had to give up their seats.

•When asked why she didn’t give up her seat one day, Parks simply said she was tired. She told the white man he couldn’t have her seat.

•Parks was arrested.

•This event had a significant impact on the civil rights movement as it launched a massive bus boycott in which blacks boycotted the Jim Crow Laws by simply not riding the buses anymore. This boycott was led by a young Martin Luther King, Jr.

•Because most of the bus companies’ business came from the economically disadvantaged blacks, they lost almost all of their business. Finally, the “blacks must sit in the back” law was overturned.
Thurgood Marshall
• A young African American lawyer who was the attorney who won the Brown v. Board of Education case. He went on to become the first African American Supreme Court Justice.
Little Rock Nine
•A group of nine African American students met with intense resistance when they asserted their new rights and planned to attend the all-white Little Rock Central High School. The governor of the State of Arkansas himself supported banning the students in direct violation of federal law.

•President Eisenhower had to act – he sent out federal troops to literally escort the students to school and to protect them from violent protestors.

•Those young people showed a tremendous amount of courage for not giving up.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
•A young minister who helped organize the Montgomery Alabama Bus Boycott.

•He advocated non-violent resistance (like Gandhi) as a way to fight against racism.

•He was assassinated.
Non-Violent Resistance
•King led the civil rights movement under this philosophy of not following unjust laws but using peaceful means of protest, such as boycotts, strikes, etc. He believed that if someone hit you, you should not fight back.

•People, especially young people, who engaged in civil disobedience (again, when you break an unfair law by not following it) were taught how to defend themselves from attacks (curling up in a ball to protect vital organs) while never raising a hand back in violence.

•This method was particularly useful during the Civil Rights Movement because the media was able to catch the cruelty of whites beating on peaceful blacks, so these images were seen across the country on the evening news. People were appalled and became engaged in the movement.
Malcolm X
•Was a different kind of African American leader. Unlike King, Malcolm X believed that the black man should be able to use violence to defend him/herself.

•He had converted to the Nation of Islam (Muslim) while in prison.

•He urged blacks to take control of their lives and communities, and not to abide by “the white man”.

•He was assassinated.
Results of the Civil Rights Movement
•1964 Civil Rights Act: prohibited discrimination across the board (not just in schools). This meant that restaurants, libraries, parks, theaters, etc could no longer refuse to serve blacks or segregate them in any way (as in “coloreds only” sections).

•Voting Rights Act of 1965: got rid of the bad Jim Crow laws such as the one requiring passing a literacy test to vote. Basically, this Act enable blacks in the south to vote – a right they’d been denied since slavery. All obstacles were removed and southern blacks were finally granted a safe way to register to vote and to go to the polls on Election Day.
Goals and Methods of Other Civil Rights Movements: Native Americans, Latin Americans, and Women:
• ? look in Hannah’s notes
Baby Boom
• After all the WWII veterans returned from war, there was a massive “boom” of pregnancies and births. This affected the US population (and is still an issue today because Baby Boomers are nearing retirement and people wonder if there will be enough Social Security money for them). This generation of people are called Baby Boomers.
What were the causes of the Civil Rights Movement?
Unfair laws, especially in the south (Jim Crow Laws) that created discrimination and injustice for African Americans. Through dynamic leadership, like Martin Luther King, and every day heroes such as Rosa Parks, the African American community was able to organize and fight for their rights through peaceful non-violent resistance.
How did opinions differ on how to achieve civil rights?
Leaders like King wanted to achieve equal rights through non-violent means.

Leaders like Malcolm X felt that the black man had already suffered so badly under white rule that he had the right and perhaps duty to fight (use violence) against white society.