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122 Cards in this Set

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Hunters-Gatherers
People who stalked game and gathered edible plants
Beringia
wide land bridge between Siberia and Alaska
Paleo-Indians
first Americans between 12000-60000 years ago
Qur'an
holy book of Islam
Crusades
wars between 1096-1200s
Renaissance-
period of learning and creativity in Europe in 1400s
Johannes Gutenberg
Inventor of first printing press
African diaspora
forcible resettlement of million of Africans to Americas
Christopher Columbus
a mariner from Genoa, Italy who found the Americas
Reconquista
reconquest of Spain from Muslims
encomienda
the right have Indians work for Spanish person
Batolome de Las Casas
demanded end to ecomienda
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty dividing world with a line.. west of line belonged to Spain and east of line belonged to Portugal
Ferdinand Magellan
Found new route to Asia from Spain around the tip of South America
cicumnavigate
sail completely around the world
Hernan Cortes
conquered Aztec Empire in Mexico
Franciso Pizzaro
conquered the Inca Empire in 1530s
Juan Ponce de Leon
Searched for the Fountain of Youth and was first European explorer in Florida
Prostetant Reformation
religious upheaval in England that established new churches as an alternative to Catholicism
Spanish Armada
Spanish fleet that tried to conquer England during reign of Queen Elizabeth and was defeated
joint-stock companies
two groups joined-Plymouth Company and the London Company in an attempt to mine gold and increase colonization
Puritans
Protestants who opposed the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England
Mayflower Compact
document establishing a self-governing colony based on majority rule of male church members
Great Migration
Thousands of Puritans left England for America
commonwealth
Society where everyone was guided by English law and the Bible in the first colonies
Freeman
adult male church member who owned property
indentured servants
bound for a period of years in service to the person who paid passage for them to America
Olaudah Equiano
12 yr. old slave who was kidnapped and sold into slavery and described his ordeal in his autobiography. called this period the Middle Passage
Middle Passage
the voyage across the Atlantic by slaves
abolition
antislavery movement
Iroquois League
confederation of tribes of Indians in New York and Pennsylvania in the 15th century
Proclamation of 1763
stopped settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains
Townshend Acts
laws from England that raised taxes on common items in the Americas
Cripus Attucks
a sailor and escaped slave who died because of the Boston Massacre
Boston Massacre
Angry confrontation between British troops and colonists
Boston Tea Party
colonists dumped 90000 pounds of tea in Boston Harbor rather than pay taxes on it to England
Intolerable Acts
Four laws from Parliament in Britain to punish Massachusetts for Tea Party and to show British control over colonists
Battle of Bunker Hill
one of first battles in Revolutionary War where the Americans overcame the British
Thomas Paine
writer who encouraged war against England for freedom of America
Declaration of Independence
1776 document declaring independence from England
Treaty of Paris
1783 granted United States independence from Britain
Shay's Rebellion
Rebellion of land owners against high taxes by Confederate government led by Daniel Shay in 1787
Constitutional Convention
meetings in Philadelphia, PA to draft a plan for national government
James Madison
Wrote the Viginia Plan-plan to take power away from states and toward a central government
Virginia Plan
Shifted political power from states and toward central government
Federalism
division of powers between strong central government and state government
delegated powers
federal government powers to make money, regulate trade with foreign countries and among states, to raisean army
reserved powers
state powers to establish local government, oversee schools, conduct elections, regulate business and set marriage laws
concurrent powers
powers shared by state and federal government
supremacy clause
Federal constitution and federal laws override state constitutions and laws
impeachment
House of Representatives may remove the president if he is thought to be guilty of treason, bribery or other high crimes
separation of powers
keeps any part of federal government from being too powerful. Divided into three parts where each branch oversees the others
elastic clause
power to make laws necessary and proper to carry out the powers given the government
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments providing for the rights of individuals
Judiciary Act
act giving government right to create a federal court and create State department, Treasury department and War department
strict construction and loose construction
strict construction-believed government could only do what the Constitution specifically said

loose construction-believed government could do anything that the Constitution did not forbid
sectionalism
loyalty to a particular part of the ocuntry
Alien and Sedition Acts
Acts in 1798 that gave presidents power to expel or imprison aliens and US citizens who were dangerous to peace and safety of the USA
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Republicans who opposed the Sedition Acts and argued the acts
Marbury v Madison
Basis for judicial review based on Supreme Court case
Judicial Review
Supreme Court could declare an act of Congress unconstitutional
Twelfth Amendment
1804 requires electors to vote for presidential and vice presidential candidates on separate ballots
Sacagawea
Shoshone Indian woman who was a guide and interpreter for Lewis and Clark's expedition out west
Embargo Act
1807 act that stopped shipments of food and other American products to all foreign ports to prevent war
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle that ended Tecumseh's dream of united Native American nation when they were defeated by whites
Battle of New Orleans
British-American battle of 1815 after the signing of the peace treaty. Americans won
Treaty of Trent
1814-signing of treaty giving Americans control over Northwest Territory
nationalism
national pride and loyalty
Tariff Act of 1816
Placed 25% tax on most imported factory goods
Monroe Doctrine
US declared any European attempt to revive old colonies or establish new ones a threat to US safety and peace
American system
program of federal economic development with 3 points
recreation of national bank
protective tariff to encourage US manufacturing
national transportation system
market revolution
creation of national markets to increase profits
Missouri Compromise
Admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a non slave state to keep balanced Congress
doctrine of nullification
President Calhoun stated states had the right to nullify or refuse to obey act of Congress they considered unconstitutional
Indian Removal Act
provided for relocation (by force if needed) of Indians living east of the Mississippi to Indian Territory west of Mississippi
Osceola
Leader of Seminole Indians in 1840 who urged a revolt against moving to Indian Territory
Second Seminole War
Resistance in Florida to moving to Indian Territory. Most costly Indian War (1835-1842)
nativism
favoring of native born Americans over foreign born
yeoman farmers
small white farmers who grew their own food and raised some crops for cash in the south.
cotton gin
Eli Whitney invention to pick cotton
overseers
planation workers who managed slaves
Underground Railroad
network of white and black abolitionists who helped slaves escape to freedom in the North and Canada
Harriet Tubman
An escaped slave who helped others escape using the Underground Railroad
Second Great Awakening
A wave of revival that renewed the faith and religion of people in 1790s
utopias
communities that experimented with new ways of organizing family life, work and property ownership
temperance movement
group trying to persuade others to limit alcohol use
Horace Mann
Secretary of Education who set up the program of free public education
Frederick Douglass
was runaway slave who spoke and wrote about he things that were wrong with the slave system
Seneca Falls Convention
marked the beginning of women's movement for rights
suffrage
the right to vote
Texas Revolution
Rebellion in 1822 against Mexican control of Texas
James K. Polk
President who supported Texas joining the United States
Mexican War
War with Mexico to gain Texas as part of the USA
Oregon Trail
Trail used by thousands of settlers from Missouri to Oregon
Mariposa War
War by Indians against miners and settlers pushing them off their land
Dred Scott
Slave living in free state sued for his freedom in the Supreme Court and lost.
Gettysburg Address
Dedication of cemetery by Lincoln also a statement of democratic ideals
Elizabeth Blackwell
America's first licensed female doctor
Clara Barton
A nurse who worked serving the Union Army
conscription
drafting men into the army
Coppperheads
Democrats in North who opposed the war
Emancipation Proclamation
declared that all slaves in areas rebelling against the US would be free on January 1, 1863
Martin Delaney
first black promoted to major
war of attrition
North would fight until South ran out of men, supplies and will to fight
total war
strike at enemy's economic resources, so North destroyed everything in the South
Thirteenth Amendment
Passed in 1865 to abolish slavery
black codes
laws limiting former slaves freedom
Thaddeus Stevens
Radical from Pennsylvania who believed that land reform could change southern society
Civil Rights Act 1866
declared everyone born in US full citizens with full civil rights
Fourteenth Amendment
1866 extended citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the US including African Americans
Fifteenth Amendment
1869-no vote shall be denied or changed based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude
Reconstruction Acts 1867
divided former Confederacy into 5 military districts to be overseen by Union troops
Compromise of 1877
Democrats agreed to accept Hayes as President and Republicans agreed not use use the military to enforce Reconstruction legislation
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Fought for women's rights
Civil Rights Bill of 1875
Prohibited discrimination by hotels and other businesses serving the public
sharecropping
worked a piece of land belonging to a plant for a share of the crop, a cabin, seed, tools, and a mule
poll taxes
fixed taxes imposed on every voter
literacy tests
intended to limit the vote to those who could read
Jim Crow laws
laws designed to keep races separate. Segregation
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court ruled (1896) that separate, but equal did NOT violate the 14th Amendment
Booker T. Washington
former slave who founded Tuskegee Institute in 1881
Ida Wells Barnett
teacher and journalist who protested discrimination and segregated schools