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29 Cards in this Set

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Two critical areas of land warfare :
mississippi river valley;
the area between the comberland and tennessee rivers
Battles of Fort Henry, Donelson, and Shiloh
Ulysees Grant- early sucesses out west using a combination of land and naval forces.
Shiloh
Grant was suprised by confederate general ALBERT JOHNSTON...but the union troops were saved by the death of johnston and reinforcements
*battle to the exhaustion- union=13,000 casualties, and south= 11,000 casualties bloodiest battle up till then
Battle of New Orleans
DAVID FARRAGUT- leader of the union navy who disobeys orders to protect the mouth of the mississippi and sails with 7 ships right by the confederate fort; all 7 make it, and the union wins control of the harbor of new orleans
Monitor vs merrimac
Great sea battle in which the south tried to use an ironclad ship to break the union barricade, but the union sent the monitor and neither side won...but the north kept control of the blockade
Battle of seven days (richmond and the surrounding area)
McClellan attempts to take richmond, but he hesitates after seven long days of hiking through the wilderness to get to richmond and stops right outside of richmond, giving the confederacy a chance to prepare a great defense. Lee finds it very easy to repel McClellans attack. McClellan is replaced.
Robert E. Lee
TACTICAL GENIUS! commander of the confederatearmy of northern VA. Almost joined the union, but he couldnt fight against his own state.
2nd battle of Bull Run
Union= John Pope
Confed= Lee and jackson
- Northern army is defeated
-Union quickly replaces Pope with McClellan again.
-Significance= Tide of the war is turning to favor the South, and Lee may be thinking about going after Washington.
Anteitam
Lee takes the offensive against 55,000 union troops led by McClellan. McClellan receives a copy of Lee's orders and it is no longer a suprise attack, but he still hesitates.
Lee is still greatly outnumbered, however, and his back is to the potomac river. he did well just to save his army. McClellan could have wiped them all out but he hesitated and decided to wait till the next morning, and by that time the confederacy had retreated.
- UNION victory (costly- 23,000 killed)
- significance: bloodiest battle in our history. Also lincoln can now make it a war against slavery and he signs preliminary emancipation proclamation...in order to make it official, though, he would first have to win the war.
Fredericksburg
Victory for Lee- most lopsided. North suffers 10,000 casualties, and the south suffers only 5,000 (prolly less)
Union general- BURNSIDE.
Enlistments dropped after fredericksburg. What happened then?
DRAFT! men 20-45 years old could be drafted for three years of service. This provoked many days of rioting in NYC especially. There were bounties up to $1,000 for serving in the army
Blacks in war
Emancipation proclamation- served as a source of manpower for the union army. 185,000 enlisted, and 38,000 were killed or wounded. Some even became non commissioned officers.
Banking during the civil war
cost of the war was payed for my borrowing money through direct taxes on the states, raised tarriffs, and the first-ever income tax ($800+; taxed at 3%)also, national banks purchased bonds.
Westward movement during the civil war
300,000 people moved west to farm, mine for gold or silver, and to escape the draft.
in 1861, the telograph reached from coast to coast.
territories: Idaho, Arizona, Montana. Nevada became a state.
Chancellorsville
Lee defeats the new union general "fighting joe hooker" Lee tells jackson to take his troops and hike them 12 miles to chancellorsville, but they are suprised. they try to retreat, but union general HILLs tropps wouldnt allow it.
although the Confederacy does win this battle, it was a major defeat in that jackson was shot by accident.
Vicksburg
Total union success of splitting hte confederacy in two depended on the takeover of vicksburg. However it was a natural fortress and very hard to take.
-Grant transports troops downt he Mississippi, goes 25 miles SOUTH of Vicksburg, and then fights his way back up.
-tells his troops to learn to live off the land- CUTS SUPPLIES
- troops fought 5 battles in 3 weeks and were often outnumbered
- Finally they reach Vicksburg and seige it.
- in a couple weeks (on july fourth) the town falls
-SIGNIFICANCE: UNION has SPLIT the confederacy in two!!!!!
Gettysburg. all generals. jacksons replacent?
outcome and significance.
union general: MEADE
confed: Lee, Longstreet

- Lee again attempts to cross the potomac into the north with 70,000 soldiers (heading towards harrisburg, a major transportation town int he north)
-Meade had only been general for two days before gettysburg
-the two units run into each other at gettysburg, both going to a shoe factory to get shoes for their army.
-Meade quicky occupies high ground
-Longstreet, Jacksons replacement, hesitates when trying to get little round top, a crucial element to the battle. HE didnt think the troops were ready, so he took time to gather more troops and by then the union had gotten the hill. *COST THEM THE BATTLE!!!!!!!*
-Confederates made desperate attempts for three days before "picketts charge" where 15,000 soldiers were ordered into a suicide march. all were captured or killed.
-July 4- Lee retreats.
***significance- death of confederacy after vicksburg and gettysburg is inevitable.***
Gettysburg address
Lincoln makes a speech to honor the new gettysburg cemetary and all those who died there. "A Government of, by, and for the people shall never perish"
Total war- new generals in east and west?
GRANT becomes the new general of the army of hte potomac.
-he will NOT stop until he gets to richmond!!!
-William Sherman- replaces Grant out west- brutal, understands total war.
-Grant moves forward toward richmond and undergoes 40 days of feirce fighting (ex "wilderness battle")
-finally reaches Petersburg VA
Petersburg
GRant lays seige to Petersburg so that richmond can get no supplies. If you get petersburg, you pretty much have richmond!
- List of dead grew every day, In the north the public opinion of the war was very low.
-Lincoln feared he would not get re elected.
-Finally though, after fighting every single day for about 10 months, They get petersburg.
Leader of the army of the west- SHERMAN
-TOTAL WAR
- Burnt atlanta down
- Marches to the sea. He abandons all supplies and communication lines so that no one knows where he is, and he destroys EVERYTHING. All confederate land through georgia, SC, NC, and VA.
- IN georgia, sherman created a path of destruction like no other: a 60 mile wide path. all railraods torn up, all barns, buildings, cotton stores, etc...totally destroyed!
-Sherman takes Savanna, GA
THe election
Lincoln wins over McClellan (212-21 electoral votes)
Sherman- heads north
South Carolina- Columbia and other small towns are left in ashes.
-north carolina -continued destruction.
Southern resistace finally collapses when
Shermans forces hit the VA border, less than 100 miles from grant, in 1865.
Thirteenth ammendment
PRoblem over slavery- Emancipation proc. didnt apply to the border states.
-lincolns deal: COMPENSATION EMANCIPATION (set slaves free, but payed owners)
-Elsewhere, slavery was abolished by the 13th ammendment.
Grant renews attack on petersburg
Petersburg falls in april of 1865
-Grant then moves on to richmond
- Davis (prez of confed) and confederate officials flee richmond
- Lee escapes to NC to attempt to join forces with JONSTON, but is headed off.
-Lee surrenders.
Surrendering of the Confederacy
Terms were generous.
-Lee and Grant exchange friendly conversation.
-Southern officers keep their swords.
-Southerners told: Go home and plant your crops.
Government during the war
Lincoln extended presidential powers
-performed actions usually carried out by congress, but would have taken too long during a war
-Volunteers expanded army
-Spent money w/o being appropriated by congress
-sympathizers with the confederacy were jailed w/o trial
Trent affair
Two confederate Diplomats (MASON AND SLIDELL) were taken off a BRITISH vessel by a union ship and put in jail.
Britian was outraged to the point of almost going to war with us, but then Lincold and Sec of state (steward) freed the men and admitted that it was wrong (to avoid a war)