Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Plessy vs. Ferguson
1896; established separate-but-equal
Jim Crow Laws
segregated buses and trains, schools, restaurants, swimming pools, parks, and other public facilities
de facto segregation
segregation by choice by custom and tradition.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
What did the NAACP do?
Fought and defended cases involving civil rights for African Americans.
Norris vs. Alabama
Exclusion of African Americans from juries violates their right to equal protection under the law
Morgan vs. Virginia
segregation on interstate buses is unconstitutional
Sweatt vs. Painter
state law schools have to admit qualified African American applicants, even if parallel black law schools existed
How did African Americans gain power during the 1930s?
They migrated north, where politicians listened to them because they wanted their votes
James Farmer
founded the Congress of Racial Equality
George House
founded the Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality, successfully integrated many public facilities with sit-ins
Thurgood Marshall
leader of the Legal Defense and Education Fund of the NAACP who defended Linda Brown
Harry F. Byrd
Senator from Virginia who called on Southerners to adopt "massive resistance" against the Brown vs. Board ruling
Southern Manifesto
signed in 1956, a group of 101 Southern Congressmen denounced the Brown vs. Board ruling and pledged to reverse it
How did the Southern Manifesto affect citizens
it encouraged white Southerners to defy the Supreme Court
Jo Ann Robinson
head of the Women's Political Council who called on African Americans to boycott Montgomery's buses on the day of Rosa Parks' trial
Who led the Montgomery Improvement Association
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Montgomery Improvement Association
formed to run the Montgomery bus boycott and to negotiate white city leaders for an end to segregation
From whom did Martin Luther King draw his philosophy
Mohandas Gandhi and Jesus
How did the Rosa Parks case end
the Supreme Court affirmed the decision declaring Alabama's laws requiring segregation on buses to be unconstitutional
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, tried to eliminate segregation from American society and to encourage African Americans to register to vote
Who was the SCLC's first president?
Martin Luther King
What did Eisenhower think about segregation?
He disagreed, and sympathized with the civil rights movement
Orval Faubus
Governor of Arkansas in 1957 who, trying to gain support for reelection, ordered troops from the National Guard to prevent nine American American students from entering a white school.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
intended to protect the right of African Americans to vote
What were the effects of the Civil Rights Act of 1957?
created a civil rights division within the Department of Justice, and gave it the authority to seek court injunction s against anyone interfering with the right to vote
a form of protest where if people are denied service, they sit down and refuse to leave
Massive resistance
the Southern people's response to integration of public schools
Crisis in Little Rock
the Arkansas governor ordered the National Guard to prevent African American students from entering a school
Freedon Riders
a group of people who traveled into the south in 1961 to protest the Southerners' segregation of buses
occurs when a group of senators begin to speak in order to stop the bill from being voted on
a motion which cuts off debate and forces a vote
Civil Rights Act of 1964
a comprehensive civil rights law which gave the government power to prevent racial segregation
Poll Tax
fees paid in order to be able to vote
Voters Registration
the process of registering with the government in order to be able to vote
Selma March
Martin Luther King, Jr. led a march to force the whites to let the blacks vote in Selma, Alabama vote
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the civil rights organization established by students
March on Washington, D.C.
Dr. king led a rally at the Capitol to gain support for a civil rights bill
Voting Rights Act 1965
authorized the attorney general to send federal examiners to register qualified voters
Black Panthers
the organization which considered themselves heirs of Malcom X
Nation of Islam
the organization of Black Muslims
Black Power
a term that meant self-defense of one's freedom
Watts Riot
a race riot which broke out in Waats after Lyndon Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act
Kerner Commission
conducted a detailed study of the race riot problem
Jesse Jackson
a student leader who decided to push for desegregation
Ella Baker
brought together the SNCC after being executive director of the SCLC
John Lewis
one of the first leaders of the SNCC, and later became a member of Congress
"Bull" Connor
head of police of Birmingham who ordered the KKK to kill the Freedom Riders
Governor George Wallace
governor of Alabama who was an advocate of segregation
Mayor Richard Daley
the mayor of Chicago who ordered the Chicago police to protect protesters led by Martin Luther King
Stokely Carmichael
leader of the SNCC in 1966 who said that African Americans should control the social, political, and economic direction of the struggle
Malcolm X
became a symbol of black power in the 1960s
Eldridge Cleaver
minister of culture who wrote Soul on Ice, which articulated the principles of the Black Panthers
Ralph Abernathy
Reverend who served as a trusted assistant to Martin Luther King, and later led the Poor People's campaign
Why did Ella Baker think that students should start the SNCC?
they had a right to direct their own affairs and even make their own mistakes
Voter Education Project
the SNCC's project of sending volunteers in the sould to register African Americans to vote
Robert Moses
started the Voter Education Project
Fannie Lou Hamer
evicted from her farm after registering to vote, and arrested later to urging other African Americas to vote
Mississippi Freedom Democratic National Convention
founded by Fannie Lou Hamer, challenged the legality of the segregated Democratic Party at the National Convention of 1964
Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity
created by Kennedy to stop federal discrimination against African Americans when hiring and promoting
What led to the end of segregation in interstate travel?
The pressure of CORE (Freedom Riders), Kennedy tightening regulations against segregated bus terminals (ICC), and the Justice Department (Robert Kennedy)
James Meredith
An African American war veteran who was denied admission to University of Mississippi. When he pressed to get admitted, a riot occured
A. Phillip Randolph
suggested the March on Washington to build support for the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, created by the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Voting Rights Act of 1965
authorized the attorney general to send federal examiners to register qualified voters
Bloody Sunday
the term given to the attack of the African American protesters by the police in Selma, Alabama
After 1965 the Civil Rights movement began to shift its focus from where to where?
From voting and political issues to achieving full social and economic equality for African Americans
What was the Waats riot in response to?
Johnson signing the Voting Rights Act
Which organization did Johnson appoint to study the causes of urban riots?
National Advisory Commission
Chicago Movement
Dr. King and the SCLC tried to work with local leaders to improve the economic status of African Americans in Chicago's poor neighborhoods
Why did many people begin to turn away from King after 1965?
His failure in the Chicago Movement made many think that nonviolent protesting does not work
Cultural Assimilation
the process by which minority groups adapt to the dominant culture in a society
What affect did prison have on Malcolm X
He began to educate himself
Elijah Muhammad
leader of the Nation of Islam
How did the Black Muslims differ in beliefs from the African Americans?
The black muslims believed that blacks should separate themselves from the whites and form their own governments
What did the X symbolize in Malcolm X?
The name of his African ancestors who had been enslaved, as his true family name had been stolen from him by slavery
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Outlawed discrimination in housing sales and rentals
African American leaders founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to __________.

A) eliminate segregation and win voting rights for African Americans

B) challenge segregation of public schools and public transportation in the courts

C) organize the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama

D) fight segregation and encourage African Americans to vote
D) fight segregation and encourage African Americans to vote
How did the Civil Rights Act of 1957 change the way that the federal government enforced civil rights?

A) It created federal offices to take legal action against anyone interfering with the right to vote.

B) It gave the states jurisdiction in addressing issues regarding individuals’ voting rights.

C) It authorized the president to use federal troops in the enforcement of federal laws.

D) It created federal offices to ensure the racial integration of public facilities.
A) It created federal offices to take legal action against anyone interfering with the right to vote.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 impacted civil rights in all of the following ways EXCEPT __________.

A) it gave the attorney general more power to bring lawsuits to force school desegregation

B) it required private employers to end discrimination in the workplace

C) it authorized the attorney general to send federal examiners to register qualified voters

D) it established a government agency to monitor the ban on job discrimination
C) it authorized the attorney general to send federal examiners to register qualified voters
To pressure the president and Congress to act on new voting rights legislation, civil rights leaders organized __________.

A) a march on Washington

B) a march in Selma, Alabama

C) demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama

D) sit-ins across the South
B) a march in Selma, Alabama
Why did Malcolm X break with the Black Muslims by 1964?

A) He thought the Black Muslims did not move fast enough toward African American self-government.

B) He disagreed with the leadership.

C) He wanted to join forces with Dr. King.

D) After seeing Muslims from many different races worshipping together in Makkah, he concluded that an integrated society was possible.
D) After seeing Muslims from many different races worshipping together in Makkah, he concluded that an integrated society was possible.