Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

204 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What two political parties supported William Jennings Bryan?
Populists and Democrats
William Lloyd Garrison
Advocated the immediate end of slavery
She repeatedly risked her life to go into the South to lead slaves north to freedom, rescuing over 300
Harriet Tubman
This book set off a storm of proteste from the South
Uncle Tom's Cabin
"That the further introduction of slavery or involuntary servitude be prohibited...and that all children born within the said State, after the admission into the Union, shall be free at the age of 25 years." This brief amendment to a piece of pending legislation concerning the admission of a new state set off a crisis. What was the amendment and what was the crisis?
Tallmadge Amendement, Missouri Compromise
stated that any individual state could on its own authority declare a federal law unconstitutional and therefore unenforceable
The doctrine of nullification
This person's reform was the treatment of mentally ill
Dorothea Dix
This person's reform was women's rights
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
This person's reform was public education
Horace Mann
What arguments did Southerners use in defense of the institution of slavery?
Northern workers toiling in the factories were treated more inhumanely; The Bible defends slavery; Slavery was essential to the agricultural system of the South, which produced crops requiring extensive hand labor
The revival of religious faith that occurred in the 1800s was called:
The Second Great Awakening
Because of the work of Dorothea Dix, during the 1800s state prisons shifted their focus from just punishment to:
Which event led to a national crisis in 1849-1950?
California's application for statehood
Who proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
Stephen Douglas
The "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions" issued by the Seneca Falls Convention demanded:
greater rights for women
The hostility of the Know-Nothing Party was directed primarily against:
Irish and German Catholic immigrants
When the Republican Party entered national politics, it could best be described as:
an organization of groups dedicated to stopping the extension of slavery into the territories
The settlers in a given territory have the sole right to decide whether or not slavery will be permitted there
popular sovereignty
Who was Lincoln speaking to when he reportedly said, "So you're the little woman that wrote the book that made this great war"?
Harriet Beecher Stowe
In the Compromise of 1850 the South got as compensation for the admission of California as a free state:
a Fugitive Slave Law
Leader of the largest slave revolt in US History was:
Nat Turner
What contributed to the beginning of the American Civil War by increasing abolitionist feeling:
execution of John Brown; enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act; Sack of Lawrence
The principle function of the American Colonization Society
purchase slaves and send them back to Africa as free men
In the Supreme Court case Commonwealth v. Hunt:
The right of unions to strike was upheld
Charles Goodyear invented
vulcanized rubber
Samuel Morse invented the
John Deere invented
steel plow
Cyrus McCormick invented
the mechanical reaper
The Kansas-Nebraska Act did these things:
repeal the Missouri Compromise; established popular sovereignty in the new states formed from territories; organized Kansas and Nebraska into territories
What contributed to the depression of 1837?
Specie Circular; Britain bought less cotton and withdrew investments; too much money printed at "pet banks"
Won the presidency with the slogan, "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too"
William Henry Harrison
The principle function of the American Colonization Society
purchase slaves and send them back to Africa as free men
"The crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away; but with blood."
John Brown's last words
Closed his four hour speech attacking the doctrine of nullification by saying, "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!"
Daniel Webster
"This momentous question, like a fire bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror."
Thomas Jefferson commenting on the debate about the Missouri Compromise
"Servants, obey yer masters. Ain't you mine now body and soul?" he said, giving Tom a violent kick with his heavy boot. "Tell me!"
Simon Legree
"What, to the American slave is your Fouth of July? I answer, a day that reveals to him, more than all other days in the year, the gross injustice and cruelty to which he is the constant victim. To him, your celebration is a sham..."
Fredrick Douglass
Eli Whitney has two inventions or ideas that helped the North and South develop differently before the American Civil War. What were they?
Cotton gin and interchangable parts
Henry Clay was one of the most important politicians of this time period and yet he is never elected President. Name 4 events or ideas he had that made him important.
introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act; opposed Lincoln; American System; Tariff Compromise
slave owners
When government officials would appoint their own supporters as their own "officials"
spoils system
the theory that the only roles for women were to be wives and mothers
Cult of Domesticity
believers that slaves could only be held in slave states
Free Soil Party
the idea that the American-born people were more important and held above immigrants
people who wanted to put an end to slavery
the slaves who looked over a group of lower slaves
the passage from Africa to American for slaves
Middle Passage
Southerners who's fight for slavery was strongest
Fire eaters
belief that alcohol should not be drunk
sold neighbors into slavery or you will be sold
Sell or be sold syndrome
the idea that you do what you can for yourself to get more money; individual ownership and profit
First a captain of a ship took tobacco from American to England, then went to Africa to take slaves to America
Triangular Trade
pre-Civil War period
The "real life" of cowboys included:
long days of monotonous work; most cowboys were young men; approximately 25% of all cowboys were African-Americans
The individual who wrote "A Century of Dishonor" to publicize injustices suffered by Native Americans:
Helen Hunt Jackson
The "day of the cowboy" ended because of expansion of the railroad and:
introduction of barbed wire
invented barb wire
Joseph Glidden
The Pacific Railway Act provided for the funding of railroad building with government loans and:
free land
Leland Stanford was important for:
owning a railroad that helped complete the first transcontinental railroad
a historian who thought that the frontier experience of the United States was the most important element of our history
Fredrick Jackson Turner
In the Second Treaty of Fort Laramie the Sioux were promised supplies if they:
went to the reservation
Indian leader who's victory was at the Battle of Little Big Horn
Crazy Horse
painter who depicted scenes of Cowboys and Indians
Fredrick Remington
published many western novels about the romanticized west
Louis L'Amour
painter who depicted scenes of Cowboys and Indians
Fredrick Remington
5 ways the myth of the cowboy was created:
Movies; Novels; Buffalo Bill's wild west shows; Country-Western music; Television
gave 160 acres of land to any citizen or intended citizen
Homestead Act
where the Transcontinental Railroad was completed
Promontory Point
Broke up reservations and gave the reservation land to individual Indians-160 acres of land to the head of the household and 80 acres to unmarried adults
Dawes Act
gave land grants to establishing agricultural colleges
Morrill Land Grant Act
a show depicting the romanticized west that traveled through the US, Europe, and Asia
Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show
Natic Americans would have to give up all of their beliefs and daily routine to become part of the while culture
gave land grants to establishing agricultural colleges
Morrill Land Grant Act
5 Accomplishments of Charles Erskine Scott Wood:
lawyer; poet; sculptor; essayist; Established the Multnomah County Library
Statehood for Texas was delayed because of an argument over:
slavery and the possiblity of was with Mexico
In his message to Congress on December 2, 1823, President Monroe asserted that:
the US would not tolerate any European power establishing new colonies in the Western Hemisphere
WWhat battle was Andrew Jackson's greatest victory but happened after the War of 1812 was over:
Battle of New Orleans
When President Jefferson learned that Spain had transferred Louisiana to French control, he worried that France might try to:
build an empire in the West
What was the new policy adopted by the federal government in a treaty signed at Fort Laramie, Wyoming in 1851?
to assign the Plains Indians areas that would be specifically reserved for each tribe
WWhat battle was Andrew Jackson's greatest victory but happened after the War of 1812 was over:
Battle of New Orleans
France sold Louisiana to the US because it needed money to finance:
it's military campaigns against Europe
The Mormon's went to Utah to seek:
religious freedom
Which 1844 presidential candidate used the slogan "fifty-four forty or fight"?
James Polk
In 1847 Mexico City was taken over by:
General Winfield Scott
What happened at Mountain Meadow?
Native Americans and Mormons massacred a wagon train full of people
The Convention of 1818 included:
set the northern boundary of the US at the 49th parallel to the Rocky Mountains; Britain and the US agreed to joint occupation of Oregon
One negative effect of the Louisiana Purchase was that:
Native Americans were under greater pressure from European American settlers
War Hawk
Henry Clay
American that opposed the Civil War
Henry Thoreau
fought in the Texas Revolution
Sam Houston
Fought in the Texas Revolution and Fought in the Mexican War
Santa Anna
American that opposed the Mexican War
Abraham Lincoln
Tried to unite all Native Americans east of the Mississippi
Fought in the Texas Revolution and Died at the Alamo
Davy Crockett
Daniel Boone
Captured and hanged Native Americans for the Whitman massacre
Joe Meek
Invented the Cherokee alphabet
In what year did the California Gold Rush begin?
Intense pride and loyalty to one's nation or ethnicity
Ida Wells Barnett was important as a:
black newspaper editor that attacked lynching
What American General said: "War is Hell!" as an explanation for his orders to destroy anything that could be of use to the enemy in the hope that civilians would lose the morale to continue the war?
The Monitor and the Virginia were important because:
They were the first two iron warships used
The Black Codes were passed in order to:
keep black in an inferior position
Which was the actor that shot President Lincoln?
John Wilkes Booth
Under the Compromise of 1877, Democrats accepted Hayes as president, and Republicans agreed to:
End Reconstruction
A battlefield nurse that founded the American Red Cross
Clara Barton
Mathew Brady was important to the Civil War as:
a photographer
Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner were:
2 leading Radical Republicans
The South's war strategy included fighting a defensive war and:
gaining a European ally
The 54th Massachusetts Infantry:
was the first African American regiment to play a key role in battle
The redeemers sought to:
secede from the Union
Booker T. Washington in his speech called the Atlanta Compromise said:
segregation is acceptable in all things social; laws cannot force an end to the inequality of the races; blacks can only get ahead with severe and constant struggle
The rifle changed military tactics by giving the advantage to troops:
attacking in solid ranks
Advantages the North had over the South:
greater population; more warships; more factories; more wealth
Which side won the American Civil War?
name given to those Southerners who joined the Republican Party during Reconstruction
Name given to the process of a formal charge wrongdoing against a high public official
name of the worst POW camp in the South during the American Civil War
with a little luck and hard work, you can become successful
Horatio Algerism
viewing material things as being most important
provided many ideas that would later be made into laws
The Populist Party
provided many ideas that would later be made into laws
The Populist Party
provided many ideas that would later be made into laws
The Populist Party
Railroad expansion:
caused the growth of other industries; provided jobs; strengthened national markets
The origin of standard time and time zones was created by:
railroads to make scheduling easier
Mugwumps was a nickname given to:
politicians from both parties in favor of civil service reform
The assassination of James Garfield by Charles Guiteau led to:
passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Act
In the Supreme Court case US v. Debs it was ruled that:
Courts could use injunctions to stop strikers if they interfered with trade
The Populist Party declined with:
The defeat of William Jennings Bryan
What common cause resulted in the "Great Strike of 1877", the Homestead Strike, and the Pullman Strike?
wage cuts
The initiative process allows citizens to:
write and pass their own laws
Functions associated with the Grange:
organizing farmers to pass laws; providing educational and social opportunities for farmers; establishing methods for farmers to sell their produce together and to have their own stores to buy what they need direct from the factory
Who made the Cross of Gold speech?
William Jennings Bryan
What were 5 methods Andrew Carnegie used to dominate the steel industry?
Vertical integration; horizontal integration; giving his managers a share of stock; buying out his competitors; cutting the cost of the steel produced
4 inventions of Thomas Edison:
light bulb; microphone; motion picture camera; record player
World's first billionaire
John Rockefeller
Most dangerous woman in American according to Theodore Roosevelt
Mother Jones
Attacked railroads and loan companies as the two great robbers of Kansas and advised farmers to "raise less corn and more hell"
Mary Lease
Who made their money in steel and his life was a tru "rags to riches" story?
Andrew Carnegie
First leader of the AFL
Samuel Gompers
Developed a profitable method to drill for oil
Developed the first telephone
Alexander Graham Bell
Unemployed people who went from Ohio to Washington DC demanding government to provide jobs
Coxey's Army
War between businessmen over ownership of the Erie Railroad
Erie War
wealth used for investments
Buy companies who provide steps of production in the item you produce
Vertical integration
goverment could not interfere with business
Laissez faire
pool of potential consumers
any business that sells shares of stock in itself
land and money given to railroad companies to build railroads
injecting air into molten steel to remove carbon and other impunities
Bessemer Process
rapidly spending money on extraneous things
conspicuous consumption
tax on imported goods whose purpose is to support local business
protective tariff
shops where children work to make clothing and other materials for little pay and in bad working conditions
sweat shops
representatives of unions and management meet to come to an agreement
collective bargaining
removing a public official before their time is up
list of people that had alleged Communist connections
any combination of businesses to get rid of competition
basic union issues of wages, hours, and work conditions
bread and butter issues
settling of disputes by an independent third party
a philosophy that believes in no government and no laws
a pledge made by newly hired employees to join a union
yellow dog contract
negative nickname given to those peopole who work during a strike
a court order requiring something be done that has the force of law
a process wher a state legislature can refer a bill to voters for their approval
term that refers to the center of economic power and business interests in the US
Wall Street
The single word that refers to the spoils system or jobs to supporters of a candidate
the Latin phrase that means let the buyer beware
caveat emptor
Name given to the series of proposal put forth by the Populist Party in 1892
Omaha Platform
This famous story is a political allegory based on events of the later part of the 19th Century and the Populist Movement
Wizard of Oz
The single word that refers to the spoils system or jobs to supporters of a candidate
To determine representation in Congress:
three-fifths of a state's slaves were counted
The Great Compromise results in:
equal representation in the Senate and proportional representation in the House
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, were added to protect:
individual citizens from the power of the federal government
In the XYZ affair, the French:
demanded a bribe from American officials
The view that federal government has only the specific powers granted to it in the Constitution is known as:
strict constitution
Because of Pinckney's Treaty:
Americans could travel freely on the Mississippi River
According to the states' right theory of the Constitution:
the federal government was created by the state; thus, states can nullify federal laws they consider unconstitutional
In Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court for the first time asserted the power of:
judicial review
The major importance of the Whiskey Tax according to Alexander Hamilton was:
it gave the national government the opportunity to show it's increased strength
The American Revolutionary War resulted in:
encouraged the French Revolution; was an example for revolutions of Latin America; increased freedom of religion
Shay's Rebellion was important because:
it led to the writing of a new, stronger constitution
Whic best explains the rise of political parties in the 1790s?
Differing ideology and view points accented by disagreements over the establishment of a national bank
term of office is 6 years
there is an equal number of these from each state
minimum age of 25
elected by the Electoral College
term of office is 2 years
Outlawed slavery North of the Ohio River
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Set aside a section of land for schools
Land Ordinance of 1785
Divided all lands into sections and townships
Land Ordinance of 1785
Established the procedure for a territory to become a state
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Was written, at least in part, by Thomas Jefferson
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and Land Ordinance of 1785
Author of Wealth of Nations which outlines basic theories of capitalism
Adam Smith
Established the Judicial Review
John Marshall
Ran for vice president but realized that Alexander Hamilton would win, so he killed him
Aaron Burr
When ships were being taken over by the British, the American sailors on the ships were held prisoner and forced to serve in the British Army
The seat-holders in the House and on the Senate cannot be charged with a misdemeanor and protected from being sued for libel
Congressional Immunity
people who buy something in hopes of making huge profit
tax on imports- protects local production or locl business
protective tariff
Federalist papers were printed in Newspapers and were written by Alexander Hamilton, John, Jay, and James Madison. It tried to win support for the Constitution
Federalist Papers
Where the Supreme Court would review wether or not something was constitutional
Judicial Review
What are the three branches of government and is the principle power of each?
Judiciary- laws; Executive- executive laws; Legislative- write laws