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56 Cards in this Set

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Writs of Assistance
General search warrants issued to help royal officials stop exasion of Britain's mercantisist trade restrictions. Writs of Assistance cases demonstrated that Americans would not accept a reduction of their freedom. James Otis argued that this was contrary to natural law, colonies joined in protesting agains the Writs
George Grenville
1763 Prime Minister, solve britains problems- large national debt from the wars by taxing Americans
Navigation Act enforcement
Grenville sent Royal Navy to suppress American smuggling and enforce the Navigation Act
Proclamation of 1763
forbidding white settlement past the Appalachians in hopes of keeping the indians happy and settlers easier to control
Sugar Act/ Revenue Act
Raising revenue for british by taxing goods imported by the americans. Accused violators facing trial in admiralty courts without benefit of jury of the normal protections of due process
Admiralty Courts
violators facing trial in admiralty courts without benefit of jury of the normal protections of due process
Quartering Act
requiring colonies in which british troops were stationed to pay for their maintenance and give them a home
Currence Act of 1764
Forbade any colonial attempts to issue currency not redeemable in gold or silver- made it more difficult for Americans to avoid the constant drain of money
"taxation without representation"
Sons of Liberty
led by Samuel Adams
Patrick Henry
introduced seven resolutions denouncing the Stamp Act
Stamp act congress
Delegates from nine colonies met to pass moderate resolutions againt the act asserting americans could not be taxed withought their consent given by their representatives in Parliament and conculded by calling a repeal for stamp and sugar acts
Stamp act
direct tax on americans. required americans to purchase revenue stamps on everything from newspapers to legal documents
Charles Lord Rockingham
Replaced Grenville. Him and parliament repealed the stamp act but also passed the declaratory act
Declaratory Act
claiming power to tax or make laws for americans "in all cases whatsoeer"
Chancellor of the Exchequer Charles Townshend
Replaced Rockingham. Series of taxes called the Townshend duties. Believed Americans would accept this method while rejecting the use of direct internal taxes
Townshend acts
use of admiralty courts for those accused of violations. use of the writs of assistance, the paying of customs officials out of the fines they levied. Had the New York legislature suspended for noncomliance with the Quartering Act
John Dickinson
Wrote a pamphlet called "Letters from a Farmer In Pennsylvania" pointing out the terms the townshend acts violated principle of no taxation without representation
Massachusetts Circular letter
reiterating dickinson's mild arguments and urging othe legislatures to pass petitions calling on Parliament to repeal the acts

British sent authorities and ordered that if the letter was not withdrawn the massachusetts legislature will be dissolved and new elections held and forbade any other colony to attempt.
Corrupt agents
used technicalities of confusing and poorly written sugar and townshend acts to entrap innocent merchants.

Mob violence threatened when agents seized the ship LIBERTY belonging to a Bonston merchant John Hancock
Boston Massacre
five bostonians were killed by british soldiers. Soldiers were more or less just defending themselves.
Frederick Lord North
repealed all the taxes except tea to retain to prve parliament had the right to tax the colonies if they so desired
British responce to the massachusetts circular letter
Nonimportation was instituted and british merchants were wanting the acts repealed
Gaspee incident
the burning by a seagoing mob of Phode islanders disguised as indians of the Gaspee. Gaspee captain and crew alienated RI by their chatching smugglers, theft and vadalism when ashore
Tea Act of 1773
Americans were buying smuggled tea from the Dutch rather than being taxed by british east india company. Parliament allowed tea to be shipped directly to the colonies rather than only y way of Britain resulting in the East India Company, tea would be even cheaper than dutch and americans would be accepting parliament right to tax them. Americans resisted the cheaper tea
Governor Thomas Hutchinson
Boston-
Ordered Royal nacy vessels to prevent the tea shps from leaving the harbor and after 20 days this would by law result in the cargoes being sold at auction and tax paid. The night before it expired 12-16-1773 bostonians disguised as indians boarded ships and threw tea into the harbor
Boston Massacre
Royal nacy vessels to prevent the tea shps from leaving the harbor and after 20 days this would by law result in the cargoes being sold at auction and tax paid. The night before it expired 12-16-1773 bostonians disguised as indians boarded ships and threw tea into the harbor
Coercive Acts
British respone to the Boston Tea Party

1. Boston Port Act- Closed the port of Boston to all trade until local citizens agreed to pay for the lost tea (they wouldn't)
2. Massachusetts Government Act- Increased the power of Massachusetss Royal Governor
3. Administration of Justice Act- Royal officials accused of crimes in Massachusetts could be tired elsewhere, chance of acquittal much greater
4. Strengthening Quartering Act
Quebec Act
Extended the province of Quebec to the Ohio River and established Roam Catholicism as Official religion of Quebec
Intolerable Acts
Americans combined the coercive acts and the quebec act
Responce to Coercive Acts by Americans
First Continental Congress met, petitioned parliament for relief, passed Suffolk Resolves decouncing the intolerable acts and colling for strict non importation and rigorous preparation of local milita companies incase the british attacked
General Gage
reeived orders to arrest the leaders of risistance in Massachusetts or provoke confrontation that would allow him to use the British military against the americans.
Decided to destroy a reported stockpile to colonial arms and ammunition at Concord
Concord
Americans had stockpiled weapons, british found out and sent troops to destroy it. They were caught by american surveillance and news spread by Paul Revere and William Dawes

After Lexington incodent, british continued to concord but supplies moved and they were attacked by minutemen and they retreated towards Boston
Lexington
Captain John Parker, Leader of Minutemen waited for British. British ordered to drop weapons and leave, but refused. Shot fired and 8 americans killed
Minutemen
militiamen trained to respond at a moment's notice
Bunker Hill
Bloodiest Battle of the war. Americans had troops on Breed's Hill so they could bombard Boston if necissary. Twice the British were thrown back but then succeeded but gained very little.
Trying to take Canada
Eathan Allen and Benedict Arnold- failed and american hopes for canada ended
Second Continental congress met
Divided into 2 factions. One composed mostly o fNew Englanders and leaned towards declaring independence. The other from middle colonies and was not ready to go that far, lead by john dickinson

Adopted "Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking up Arms" & "Olive Brance Petition"
Olive Brance Petition
Pleading with King George III to restore peace
Prohibitory Act
Britians responce to Olive Branch Petition, declaring the colonies in rebellion and no longer under his protection
Thomas Paine
"common sense" calling for immediate independence and had much influence in favor of independence
Richard Henry Lee
Introduced a series of formal resolutions in congress calling for independence and a national government. Congress accepted ideas and named 2 committees. One headed by john dickinson to work out framework for a national government, the other was to draft a statement o fthe reasons for declaration of Independence the work to Thomas Jefferson
General Howe
replaced Gage because he was being too timid.
Germans
Germans helped supplement the British army. Americans called them Hessians
Loyalists
americans still loyal to the british crown
Battle of Saratoga
american victory convinced the french to openly join the fighting. Later the spanish and the dutch
British focus on the South
Thought that was where the most loyalist's were and General henry clinton was the new leader that replaced howe
Treaty of Paris 1783
Fight at Yorktown brought the collapes of Lord north's ministry
benjamin franklin and john adams and john jay were the negotiating team.
Conditions of the Treaty of Paris
1. US was recognised as a independent nation
2. Western boundery was set at the mississippi
3. Southern boundaries was set at 31 degrees latitude
4. Britain retained canada but gave florida to spanish
Articles of Confederaton
By John Dickinson
Sovereignty of the states and a very weak national government. Unicameral congress, each state would have one vote. Executive authority of the atricles would be under a comittee of 13 and the unanimous consent of all the states is required

Empowered to make war, treateis, determine the amount of troops and money each state should contribute to the war efforts, settle disputes

NOT EMPOWERED TO LEVY TAXES, RAISE TROOPS OF REGULATE COMMERCE
Continentals
money the congress printed because of deep financial trouble. but soon became worthless
Wilnerness Road
Daniel Boone opened land through cumberland gap and through kentucky. Many began to settle out west

Settlement in Kentucky and Tennessee increased pressure for opening land north of the ohio river, facilitated by congress passing 3 land ordinances
Land Ordinance of 1748
Provided for territorial government and orderly system by which each territory could progress to full statehood
Land ordinance of 1785/Northwest ordinance of 1785
Orderly surveying and distribution of land in townships six square miles each composed of 36 sections which one could be set aside for education
Northwest ordinance of 1787
provided a bill of rights for settlers and forbade slavery north of the ohio river. provided for the creation of three to five territiors wich could be admitted to states when reached sufficient population
Jay-Gardoqui Negotiations
John jay negotiated with spain a treaty that would have granted lucrative commerical privileges benefitting large east-coase merchants but negotiations were broke off
Shays' Rebellion
Led by war veteran daniel shays
Economic hard times and high taxes drove western massachusetts farmers to desperation
Shut down courts to prevent judges from seizing property or condeming people to debtors' prison for failing to pay taxes
Rebellion caused people to think a stronger national government was needed