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98 Cards in this Set

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Impressment
bording of ships by French soldiers and forced conversion of American soldiers.
Jay's Treaty
settled issues such as fishing rights and loyalist compensation with British shortly after Constitution.
Pinckney's Treaty
fixed U.S. southern border with Spain and allowed colonists use of Mississippi through Spanish territory.
Election of 1796
John Adams defeats Tom Jeff.divided federalists and executive office since Jefferson became VP and opposed Adams.
XYZ Affair (Quasi War)
U.S. sent reps to France but were avoided until told payment must be given first to speak w French reps.
Alien & Sedition Acts
argued that the states had the right and the duty to declare unconstitutional any acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution
Virginia Resolution
James Madison's response to A&S Acts declaring a states option to nullify any law unconstitutional.
Kentucky Resolution
Thomas Jefferson's response to A&S acts.
Election of 1800
Tom Jeff defeats Aaron Burr, who is upset by it.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Established the U.S. federal judiciary and really raised tensions between Feds and Anti-Feds.
Midnight Appointments
Adams appointed Federalist judges to many courts in time after losing election and waiting for Jefferson's induction.
In whose era did Industrialism begin?
Jeffersonian Era.
What were new innovations in transportation around 1800?
turnpikes and Robert Fulton's steamboat.
Who wanted a federal city and created D.C.?
Thomas Jefferson.
Barbary Pirates
tried to force U.S. to pay fee to sail the open seas.
Judicial Review
The ability of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional.
Marbury v. Madison
lawsuit to deliver withheld appointment from Adams; established judicial review.
John Marshall
2nd chief justice; federalist.
What was Napolean dealing with before Louisiana Purchase?
France freed the slaves in Haiti, but didnt realize how crucial they were to producing sugar, so a revolt began when slavery tried to be reinforced.
What was Napolean's offer for all French land?
$15 million.
What was Jefferson's quandry when offered the Louisiana Purchase?
he was a strict constructionist and didnt believed buying it was constitutional, but too good to pass up.
The Napoleonic Wars 1795-1815
Britain and France trying to eliminate each other but cannot; reshapes Europe.
Orders in Council 1807
French orders for all allies not to trade with Britain. vice versa for Britain.
"Peaceable Coersion"
action to maintain peace; embargo directed at Britain and France during Napoleonic wars.
Who were the war hawks?
John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay.
James Madison
elected pres. in 1808, 1812.
Tecumseh and the Prophet
united neighboring tribes to attempt to stop white expansion but were defeated at Tippecanoe.
War of 1812, British invasion
blocked U.S. ports and burned White House and D.C.
Ft. McHenry
location where Francis Scott Key wrote SSB.
Treaty of Ghent, Dec. 1814
ended Wo1812 and made status quo ante bellum.
Battle of New Orleans
Andrew Jackson led Americans to glorious victory; only a result of slow communication.
Rush-Bagot Agreement
demilitarization of the Great Lakes.
Hartford Convention
Federalist meeting to discuss seceding from the Union; perceived them as traitors and led to downfall of the party.
Changes as result of Wo1812
Jeff's plan for agricultural nation discredited, realization to improve inland transportation, end of political factionism.
Henry Clay
westerner responsible for many important decisions and compromises including American System.
Daniel Webster
northerner; anti-slavery.
Election of 1820
James Monroe won w overwhelming majority.
The American System
2nd bank of the U.S.(accepted), protective tariff to tax foreign imports and promote American goods(accepted), system of connected roads(denied).
The Seminole War
Andrew Jackson led troops into Florida to retrieve runaway slaves and openly attacked a Spanish fort.
Adams-Onis Treaty
John Quincy Adams saves Jacksons reputation by telling Spain that they wanted Florida and were prepared to fight, Spain just gave it to us.
Election of 1824
JQA won in the House and Jackson won the popular vote but JQA elected.
Corrupt Bargain
When JQA appoints Clay as Sec. of State, Jackson believes the conspired behing closed doors to fix the election in Adams favor.
Tariff of Abominations
textile tariff everybody hated and blamed Adams for.
Election of 1828
Jackson v. Adams; first campaign with "mudslinging". Jack wins.
Expanding Electorate
in 1824, only land owners could vote. By 1828, all white males could vote so popular votes quadrupled.
Spoils System, "kitchen cabinet"
Jackson technique that gave presidential appointments for various positions to supporters of the campaign.
Petticoat Crisis
Peggy Eaton was shunned by many politicians such as Floride Calhoun, the 2nd lady, for seeming slutty.
Nullification Crisis
Calhoun led SC wants to secede and not pay tariff, Jack must maintain union.
Who wrote the South Carolina Exposition and Protest?
John C. Calhoun.
Jackson's "Proclamation to the people of SC"
carefully worded document trying to urge people not to secede and that they are being misled.
The Force Bill, 1833
Jack prepared to invade SC if they withdrew from union.
Tariff of 1833
compromise of nullification crisis; tax that will gradually get smaller until it is no more.
The Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw.
Worcester v. Georgia
claims a state has no right to remove indians, but Jack disobeyed and remove them anyway.
Nicholas Biddle
president of the 2nd bank of U.S. and set off "war" with Andrew Jackson when he applied for the banks' rechartering 4 years early; vetoed by Jackson.
Election of 1832
Jackson defeated Clay.
How did Jackson defeat the bank?
He went through 3 treasurers until Roger B. Taney finally agreed to allow removal of govn. funds, thus stealing the bank's largest depositor.
Roger B. Taney
appointed to chief justice by Jack for complying as treasurer.
Democrats
founded by Andrew Jackson.
Whigs
Henry Clay, Calhoun.
Election of 1836
Martin van Buren elected.
Panic of 1837
speculative fever financial crisis after fall of 2nd bank of U.S.
Election of 1840
William Henry Harrrison wins with his log cabin campaign involving buttons and posters.
Rapid Urbanization and Immigration
1840-1860; 40-50% unskilled, poor, Catholic Irish; 20-25% skilled, educated Germans with rural interests.
Native American Party
white men "native" to America; against immigration
Know-Nothings
very secretive and against immigration.
What early innovations began America's economic revolution?
canals, steamboats, steam engine and railroads. people followed railroads and experienced incredible growth from 1850-1860.
Telegraph
then-fastest form of communication; sent electrically transmitted code.
Advantages of corporation
creates jobs, encourages investments, and helps economy flourish.
Factory
mainly to make textiles; hired many women.
The Lowell System
saw all stages of textile production done under one roof, with employees living in company housing, and away from home and family. ladies held to strict hours and rigid morals. eventually declined.
What kind of work force was created by industrialism?
immigrants under harsh conditions performing the lowliest jobs possible.
Women and the "Cult of Domesticity"
domestic roles such as teachers and housekeepers.
What was caused by factories?
interchangeable parts, deskilling of craftsmen, new concept of time being rigid and regimented.
2nd Great Awakening
christian revival that brought about the methodists and baptists.
Adventists
formed by William Miller, read Bible and became a believer, changed apocalypse prediction 3 times.
Mormons
founded by Joseph Smith, multiple wives, Brigham led great migration from illinois to salt lake city.
Rappites
George Rapp and Robert Owen; possessions held in common, celibacy, imminent return of Jesus.
Charles Fourier
cooperative efforts, women and gays receive equal rights, founded la reunion which merged with Dallas.
Shakers
(mother) Ann Lee believes she is Jesus, celibacy and pacifism.
Oneida
John Humphrey Noyes, productive labor and complex marriage, possessions held in common.
Amana
most enduring of communes and transformed into business.
Horace Mann
organized the growth of public schools out of desire for an educated workforce.
Dorothea Dix
advocated for better treatment of the mentally ill.
Southern trade and industry
weak manufacturing, bad regional transportation; all agriculture.
Cavalier Image
southern opinion of self-superiority.
Planter Aristocracy
1% owned more than 1 slave; not representative of the South.
Plain folk
owned little or no slaves, limited education opportunities, close relations with aristocracy.
Task & Gang systems
gang system sent slaves in groups w open ended amt of work to be done.
Slave life
high mortality rate, either house or field slaves, subject to sexual abuse from master.
What happened to free blacks in the north?
tightened restrictions as sectional differences w/ South arose.
Slave trade
inspected "goods" at auction as if slaves were animals; big monetary investment by buyers.
Nat Turner's Rebellion
bloody revolt of slaves in Virginia; realized the long time fear of white slaveholders.
Pidgin
made up synthesis of multiple languages used by slaves.
Importance of spirituality
only source of hope that things would get better, used as a crutch.
Slave family
close kinships of paternal nature.
Early solution to abolition
return slaves to Africa, ultimately a failure.
William Lloyd Garrison
calls for immediate abolition, published The Liberator and founded american anti-slavery society.