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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two-house legislature.
Bicameral legislature
Money granted by the federal government to the states for a broad purpose (e.g., transportation) rather than for a narrow purpose (e.g., school lunch program).
Block grant
Money granted by the federal government to the states for a narrow purpose rather than for a broad purpose.
Catergorical grant
Those who favor greater national authority rather that state authority.
System in which each branch of government can limit the power of the other two branches.
Checks and balances
Gives Congress the power to regulate commerce among the states, with foreign nations, and among Indian tribes. Granted through Article 1, section 8 of the Constitution.
Commerce clause
Those held by both Congress and the states (e.g., establishing law enforcement angencies.
Concurrent powers
System in which sovereign states are only loosely tied to a central government (e.g., the U.S. under the Article of Confederation).
Those who favor greater state authority rather than national authority.
System in which the people rule themselves.
Direct Democracy
States that Congress can exercise those powers that are "necessay and proper" for carrying out th eenumerated powers.
Elastic Clause
Those that are specifically granted to Congress in Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution.
Enumerated Powers
Constitutional sharing of power between a central government and state governments.
System in which the national government and state governments are coequal, with each being dominant within its respective sphere.
Dual Federalism
System in which both federal government and state governments cooperate in solving problems.
Cooperative Federalism
System in which the national government restores greater authority back to the states.
New Federalism
Group of 85 essays written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay for the purpose of pursuading the people of New York to adopt the Constitution.
Federalist Papers
A change in the actual wording of the COnstitution. Proposed by Congress or national convention, and ratified by the states.
Formal Amendment
Those that are "necessary and proper" to carry out Congress' enumerated powers, and are granted to Congress throught the elastic clause.
Implied Powers
System in which the people are ruled by their representatives. Also known as a representative democracy, or republic.
Indirect Democracy
Foreign policy powers held by the national government by virtue of its being a national government.
Inherent Powers
A change in the meaning, but not the wording, of the Constitution.
Informal Amendment
Power of the courts to rule on the constitutionality of laws and government actions.
Judicial Review
Requirements imposed by the national government upon the states.
1803: established the power of judicial review.
Marbury vs. Madison
1819: established principle of national supremacy and validity of implied powers.
McCullock vs. Maryland
Powers of the states to protect the public heath, safety, morals, and welfare of the public.
Police Powers
Principle in which ultimate political authority rests with the people.
Popular Sovereignty
Powers held by the states through the 10th Amendment. Any power not granted to the U.S. government is "reserved" for the states.
Reserved Powers
Principle in which the powers of government are seperated among three branched: legislative, executive, and judicial.
Seperation of Powers
1786 revolt by Massachusetts farmers seeking relief from debt and foreclosure that was a factor in the calling of the Constitutional Convention.
Shays' Rebellion
A majority greater than a simple majority of one over half e.g., 3/5, 2/3
One-house legislature.
Unicameral Legislature