Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Constituent
one of the persons represented by a legislator or other elected or appointed official
the people that are represented by the elected official (senate or congress)
bicameralism
the division of a legislature into two separate assemblies
Senate -- equal representation of all states
House -- representation based on population
Lawmaking
the process of establishing the legal rules that govern society
size of the federal budget, health care reform and gun control, long term prospects for war or peace
Logrolling
an arrangement in which two or more members of congress agree in advance to support each other's bill
offering to support a fellow member's bill in exchange for that member's promise to support your bill in the future
representation
the function of members of Congress as eleted officials representing the views of their constituents
the trustee view of representation and the instructed-delegate view of representation
Trustee
a legislator who acts according to her or his conscience and the broad interests of the entire society
part of the representation function
Instructed Delegate
a legislator who is an agent of the voters who elected him or her and who votes according to the views of constituents regardless of personal beliefs
part of the representation function
Casework
personal work for constituents by members of Congress
tracking down a missing Social Security check, explaining the meaning of particular bills to people who may be affected by them, promoting a local business interest, or interceding with a regulatory agaency on behalf of constituents who disagree with proposed agency regulation
ombudsperson
A person who hears and investigates complaints by private individuals against public official or agencies
A person that does casework
Oversight
the process by which congress follows up on laws it has enacted to ensure that they are being enforced and administered in the way Congress intended
it is done by holding committee hearings and investigations, changing the size of an agency's budget, and cross-examining high-level presidential nominees to head major agencies. related to the concept of constiuency service - investigation of alleged arbitrariness or wrongdoing by bureaucratic agencies
Agenda Setting
Determining which public-policy question will be debated or considered
part of the public-education function
enumerated (expressed) powers
a power specifically granted to the national government by the Constitution.
The first 17 claused of Article I, Sec. 8. right to impose taxes and import tariffs; borrow money; regulate interstate commerce and international trade; to override presidential vetow; regulate the electoral college;declare war;raise and regulate an army and a navy; regulate copyrights.
Rules Committee
A standing committe of the House of Representatives that provides special rules under which specific bills can be debated amended, and considered by the house
propose time limitations on debate
Filibuster
the use of the Senate's tradition of unlimited debate as a delaying tactic to block a bill
this is not always the best because their is cloture which shuts off the discussion of the bill
Direct primary
An intraparty election in which the voters select the condidates who will run on a party's ticket in the subsequent general election
the first stage of congressional elections
pary identifier
a person who identifies witha a political party
republican/democrat
reapportionment
the allocation of seats in the House of Representatives to each state after the census
part of the congressional apportionment
Redistricting
redrawing of the boundaries of the congressional districts within each state
part of the congressional apportionment
Justiciable question
A question that may be raised and reviewed in court
gerrymandering
the drawing of legislative district boundary lines for the purpose of obtaining partisan or factional advantage. A district is said to be gerrymandered when its shape is manipulated by the dominant party in the stat legislature to maximize electoral strenght at the expense of the minority party
"pack" and "crack" techniques of packing supporting voters into few district, but cracking opposing voters in different districts
Franking
a policy that enables members of Congress to send material throught the mail y substituting their facsimile signature (frank) for postage
privilege that legislators have
discharge petition
a procedure by which a bill in the House of Representatives may be forced (discharged) out of a committee that has refused to report it for consideration by the House. The petition must be signed by an absolute majority (218) of representatives and is used only on rare occasions
Standing committee
a permanent committee in the the house or senate that considers bills within a certain subject area
agriculture, budget -- general interest of the constituents
Select Committe
a temporary legislative committee established for a limited time period and for a special purpose
a public problem - child nutrition or aging.
Joint Committees
A legislative committee composed of members from both chambers of Congress
deal with economy, taxation, and the Library of Congress
Conference Committee
A special joint committee appointed to reconcile differences when bills pass the two chambers of Congress in different forms
Seniority System
a custom followed in both chambers of Congress specifying that the member of the majority party with the longest term of continuous service will be given preference when a committee chairperson (or a holder of some other significant post) is selected
Safe Seat
A district that returns a legislator with 55 percent of the vote or more
Speaker of the House
the presiding officer in the House of Representatives. The Speaker is always a member of the majority party and is the most powerful and influential member of the house
Majority Leader of the House
a legislative position held by an important party member in the House of Representatives. The majority leader is selected by the majority party in caucus or conference to foster cohesion amon party members and to act as spokesperson for the majority in the House.
Minority Leader of the House
The party leader elected by the minority party of the House.
Whips
A member of Congress who aids the majority or minority leader of the House or the Senate
pass on information between the leaders and party people, conduct polls.
President Pro Tempore
The temporary presiding officer of the Senate in the absence of the vice president
Senate Majority Leader
the chief spokesperson of the majority party in the Senate, who directs the legislative program and party strategy
Senate Minority leader
the party officer in the Senate who commands the minority party's opposition to the policies of the majority party and directs the legislative program and strategy of his or her party
Conservative coalition
an alliance of Republicans and southern democrats that can form in the House or the Senate to oppose liberal legislation and support conservative legislation
Executive budget
the budget prepared and submitted by the president to Congress
Fiscal Year
a twelve month period that is used for bookkeeping or accounting purposes. usually, the fiscal year does not coincide with the calendr year.
Spring Review
The annual process in which the Office of Management and Budget requires federal agencies to review their programs, activities, and goals and submit their requests for funding for the next fiscal year
Fall Review
The annual process in which the OMB after recieving formal federal agency requests for funding for the next fiscal year, reviews the requests, makes changes, and submits it recommendation to the president
Authorization
a formal decleration by a legislative committee that a certain amount of funding may be available to an agency. some authorizations terminate in a year; other are renewable automatically withouth further congressional action
Appropriation
the passage by congress of a spending bill specifying the amount of authorized funds that actually will be allocated for agency's use
1st budget resolution
a resolution passed by congress in may that sets overall revenue and spending goals for the following fy
2nd budget resolution
a resolution passed by congress in spt. that sets "binding" limits on taxes and spending for the following fy
Continuing resolution
a temporary funding law that congress passes when an appropriation bill has not been decided by the beg. of the new fy on oct. 1