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40 Cards in this Set

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The Union was unable to defend Fort Sumter for very long because the

a. Union fort had been breached in a previous battle
b. Confederate soldiers captured the Union's warships
c. Union soldiers were sympathetic to the Confederate cause
d. Union warships were unable provide reinforcements to the garrison
The correct answer is D. Fort Sumter was defended for thirty-three hours before surrendering to Confederate forces. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect. A miscommunication had sent the biggest Union warship to another fort, and bad weather prevented other ships from providing the fort with support. The Union soldiers inside the fort were loyal to the Union.
Which of the following is a true statement about Davis' first cabinet?

a. Each member represented a different state.
b. Each member had been a presidential candidate.
c. Each member had been a Know-Nothing leader.
d. Each member contributed money to the Confederacy.
The correct answer is A. Each member of Davis' first cabinet represented a different state in the Confederacy. By choosing cabinet members from different states, Davis hoped to keep the Confederacy united. Choice B describes Lincoln's cabinet members. Choices C and D are not true statements that apply to each member of Davis' first cabinet.
After the War of 1812, the U.S. federal government made efforts to promote a national market by

a. providing funding for local projects
b. decreasing taxes on foreign goods
c. disbanding the national bank
d. initiating a protective tariff
The correct answer is D. President Madison agreed to a moderate protective tariff on imported foreign goods to assist young American industries, so choice B is incorrect. Northerners, who would benefit the most from the legislation, supported the tariff, while many Southerners opposed it. Madison chartered a national bank and funded federal rather than local projects, so choices A and C are incorrect.
Kentucky declared neutrality at the beginning of the Civil War because the state had

a. economic ties to both southern plantations and northern manufacturers
b. money tied into the railroad that would be forfeited by declaring a side
c. geographical and sentimental ties to both the North and South
d. small numbers of Union supporters who were not very vocal
The correct answer is C. The geographical and sentimental ties that citizens of Kentucky had toward the North and the South prevented the state from choosing a side at the beginning of the Civil War. However, as the war progressed, Kentucky Unionists gained support and the state remained with the Union, so choice D is incorrect. Cotton and railroad money were not factors in the decision to remain neutral, so choices A and B are incorrect.
Which of the following terms was used to refer to runaway slaves due to terminology in the Confiscation Act of 11861?

a. Fugitives
b. Rebels
c. Property
d. Contraband
The correct answer is D. Terminology in the Confiscation Act of 1861 declared runaway slaves to be contraband of the war. Any freed slaves that were discovered by a Union force did not have to be returned to their owners. The Confiscation Acts of 1861 and 1862 eventually led to the Emancipation Proclamation
Which of the following served as Lincoln's secretary of state?

a. George McClellan
b. Hannibal Hamlin
c. Gideon Welles
d. William Seward
The correct answer is D. William Seward served as Lincoln's secretary of state. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect. George McClellan was chosen as commander of the Union army after the loss at Bull Run. Hannibal Hamlin was Lincoln's vice president. Gideon Welles served as Lincoln's secretary of the navy.
The invention of the cotton gin benefited the North by

a. decreasing the federal tax on manufacturers
b. increasing the demand for textile merchants
c. decreasing the power of plantation owners
d. increasing the demand for imported goods
The correct answer is B. Eli Whitney's cotton gin enabled field laborers to clean 50 pounds of cotton each as opposed to one pound by hand. Cotton production increased, and Northern textile merchants made money by shipping cotton fabric to the rest of the nation. Protective tariffs had been placed on imported goods, so choices A and D are incorrect. Cotton production monetarily benefited plantation owners, so choice C is incorrect.
The Battle of Stones River between Generals Rosencrans and Bragg can best be described as a

a. strategic Union victory with high casualties
b. quick Confederate rout of Union forces
c. prolonged siege that ended in Confederate victory
d. decisive Union win with very few casualties
The correct answer is A. The Battle of Stones River lasted three days and caused more than 23,000 casualties. The battle was technically a draw, but the Confederates withdrew first, which boosted the morale of the Union and prevented Confederate control of Tennessee. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect. Casualties were high, the South was not victorious, and the battle lasted only a few days.
The Confederacy's conscription law initially allowed men to

a. transfer to militias that saw no active duty
b. exchange Confederate bonds for service
c. defer their enlistments indefinitely
d. pay substitutes to serve in their place
The correct answer is D. One of the loopholes of the conscription law was that men could pay substitutes to serve in their place. The law enabled wealthy men to buy their way out of service; costs rose to as high as $6,000. Choices A, B, and C were not aspects of the conscription law.
Which of the following military ranks suffered the highest casualty rate in both the Union and Confederate armies?

a. Generals
b. Lieutenants
c. Sergeants
d. Privates
The correct answer is A. Generals in both armies were 50 percent more likely to be killed during battle than privates were. Officers suffered more casualties than enlisted men because during combat they led from the front rather than from the rear. Choices B, C, and D experienced lower casualty rates than generals, so they are incorrect.
The construction of more than 3,000 miles of canals by 1840 was based on the idea that

a. manufacturing would create jobs and wealth in the South
b. westward expansion required the shipment of exports
c. prosperity required cheap methods of transportation
d. barges moved goods more efficiently than trains
The correct answer is C. The construction of 3,300 miles of canals was based on the idea that prosperity required inexpensive transportation methods. The Erie Canal had reduced the cost of shipping from 19 cents per mile to 3 cents per mile, and towns had sprung up along the Erie Canal as a result of its construction. Most of the canals were built in the north, so choices A and B are incorrect, while trains eventually eliminated the need for steamboats. Choice D is incorrect.
The Confederate army mostly consisted of farmers and men who owned no property because

a. men with vital jobs were exempt
b. military training was costly
c. fugitive slaves were exempt
d. service required gun ownership
The correct answer is A. Men with jobs considered vital to a community were exempt from service in the army. Exemptions were made for railroad workers, miners, teachers, and others. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect. African Americans were excluded from service, so they would not have received exemptions. Wealthy individuals were allowed to pay substitutes to serve in their place.
The Confederate army mostly consisted of farmers and men who owned no property because

a. men with vital jobs were exempt
b. military training was costly
c. fugitive slaves were exempt
d. service required gun ownership
The correct answer is A. Men with jobs considered vital to a community were exempt from service in the army. Exemptions were made for railroad workers, miners, teachers, and others. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect. African Americans were excluded from service, so they would not have received exemptions. Wealthy individuals were allowed to pay substitutes to serve in their place.
Which of the following best describes the presidential election of 1864?
a. Lincoln ran against a fervent Copperhead and lost the popular vote but won the electoral majority.
b. Lincoln ran against a former Union army commander and easily won the majority of electoral votes.
c. Lincoln ran against a fervent Copperhead and easily won the popular vote but lost the electoral vote.
d. Lincoln ran against a former Union army commander and narrowly won the electoral vote.
The correct answer is B. Lincoln ran against George McClellan, a former Union commander running on the Democratic ticket. McClellan was presented as a candidate wanting to bring about peace instead of war; however, he was not totally in favor of the Democrat's platform and was not a Copperhead. Lincoln handily won the electoral majority, so choices C and D are incorrect. Choice A is incorrect because Lincoln won the popular vote against three other candidates, although Lincoln was disappointed to receive less than 40 percent of the popular vote
What is the most likely reason that more African Americans served in the Union navy instead of in the Union army?
a. Recruiting difficulties led the navy to allow African Amer to enlist as sailors b4 the Civil War.
b. African Amer believed that naval training would enable them to become merchant marines after the war.
c. African Amer sailors in the navy received the same pay as white sailors during the Civil War.
d. Too many men had enlisted in the army, so African Americans were asked to provide support for the navy.
The correct answer is A. The U.S. navy had trouble in recruiting enough sailors, so African Americans had been serving on ships before the Civil War. More African Americans enlisted in the navy because of less resistance by superior officers and fellow sailors. Choice C is incorrect because white troops received higher pay than African American troops. Choices B and D are less likely reasons that African Americans joined the navy.
Members of the Confederate Congress who disagreed with conscription argued that the law conflicted with

a. slavery
b. states' rights
c. military logic
d. territorial expansion
The correct answer is B. For many people, conscription conflicted with the Confederacy's fight for states' rights. Opponents of the law believed that individual states, not the national government, should determine whether to send their citizens into war. Choice C is incorrect because the decision to draft was the logical way to enlarge the army. Slavery and territorial expansion were goals of the Confederacy not related to the draft, so choices A and D are incorrect.
As a result of the Civil War, the medical profession gained a better understanding of the connection between disease and

a. dysentery
b. cleanliness
c. surgery
d. medicine
The correct answer is B. The connection between the spread of disease and cleanliness became obvious from the high number of disease-related deaths in the Civil War. Although medical professionals may have been aware of the connection between hygiene and disease, the thousands of soldiers who suffered from bowel disorders and other ailments during the war confirmed the suspicion. Better surgery techniques and medicine would have been beneficial, but unclean camps eradicated the positive effects of any medical treatments. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
Which of the following prevented the Confederacy from generating cash for the war effort?

a. The cotton embargo
b. Soaring inflation
c. Confederate bonds
d. The foreign exchange rate
The correct answer is A. The cotton embargo prevented the South from selling its chief source of income. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect. Planters had little cash available to invest in Confederate bonds, and foreign investors were unwilling to loan the South money. The Confederacy financed the war by printing worthless money, which led to high inflation.
Which of the following most likely enabled women to handle agricultural production during the Civil War?

a. Sharecropping
b. Tenant farming
c. Labor surplus
d. Farm machinery
The correct answer is D. Farm machinery enabled women to work in place of their husbands on family farms. During the war, additional reapers and mowers were produced to compensate for the labor shortage, so choice C is incorrect. Sharecropping did not become prominent in the U.S. until Reconstruction, so choice A is incorrect. Tenant farming gained popularity in the 1870s, so choice B is incorrect.
The industrial revolution changed the economy of the Deep South by

a. increasing the land available for cotton farming
b. lowering the costs associated with farm machines
c. speeding up the production and shipment of cotton
d. creating international markets for wheat and sorghum
The correct answer is C. The industrial revolution brought improvements in transportation and the cotton gin, which both served to speed up the production and shipment of cotton. Cotton exports accounted for almost half of the exports in the U.S. in the mid-nineteenth century and boosted the economy of southern states. Choices A, B, and D were not directly relevant to industrialization and the economy of the South.
Which of the following occurred at the Battle of the Wilderness?

a. Muddy roads delayed the movement of Confederate troops
b. Union reinforcements got lost in the wooded terrain
c. Brushfires trapped wounded soldiers
d. Heavy rains flooded a nearby river
The correct answer is C. At the Battle of the Wilderness, brushfires broke out in the woods between the two lines. Soldiers fought both the fire and the enemy, and wounded soldiers who were trapped in the middle ultimately perished. Muddy roads, rains, and lost reinforcements were not events that occurred at the Battle of the Wilderness, so choices A, B, and D are incorrect.
Which of the following was the primary Union army in the Eastern Theater?

a. Army of Virginia
b. Army of Washington D.C.
c. Army of the Potomac
d. Army of Northern Virginia
The correct answer is C. The Army of the Potomac was established in 1861. It served as the main Union army in the Eastern Theater and was based in Washington, D.C. Choices A, B, and D are incorrect. The Army of Virginia was a significant unit of the Union army, while the Army of Northern Virginia was a Confederate army led by Robert E. Lee.
The Battle of Spotsylvania is best described as a

a. two-week series of fierce combats
b. two-day offensive maneuver by the Union
c. month-long siege that ended in a Confederate win
d. faulty Confederate attempt to gain the Union capital
The correct answer is A. The Battle of Spotsylvania lasted two weeks and involved nearly non-stop combat. The Union had nearly 18,000 casualties, while the Confederacy had nearly 13,000. Although the battle was considered a draw, the Union continued heading south toward the Confederate capital of Richmond. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect.
Internal struggles in Virginia between Confederate and Union supporters led to the

a. dissolution of the state government
b. formation of a new border state
c. merging of two border states
d. state declaring neutrality
The correct answer is B. Virginia's struggles led to the formation of a new border state, West Virginia. In the hilly areas of western Virginia, slavery was not an important issue, and residents in western counties would not support the Confederacy. The state government was not dissolved, so choice A is incorrect. Choice C is incorrect. Kentucky declared neutrality, so choice D is incorrect.
A profitable but illegal venture in which British vessels participated during the Civil War was

a. transporting goods to the Union
b. blockade running for the Confederacy
c. charging taxes for imported goods
d. transporting fugitive slaves to Europe
The correct answer is B. Blockade running was an illegal but profitable activity for many British vessels. Blockade running involved importing and exporting at blockaded Confederate ports, which was a violation for ships from neutral nations. The activity enabled Confederate states to sell some of their cotton and purchase needed supplies and arms, which was profitable for blockade runners and costly for the Confederacy. Choices A and D are incorrect. Choice A was legal, while choice D was not very profitable. Most importers were charged taxes not vice versa, so choice C is incorrect.
The Democratic Party splintered at the 1860 convention when Southern radicals called for


a. a slavery amendment

b. Lincoln's nomination

c. protective tariffs

d. a federal slave code
The correct answer is D. At the 1860 convention, the Democratic Party divided over federal slave codes, which southern radicals demanded. The two sides were unable to agree on a presidential candidate and nominated two instead. Lincoln was nominated by the Republican Party, which also supported protective tariffs. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect.
Which of the following is a true statement about the Battle of Shiloh?


a. The Confederates dominated Union troops on the first day, but Union reinforcements forced the Confederates to withdraw on the second day.

b. The Union routed Confederate troops on the first day, but reinforcements enabled the Confederates defeat the Union on the second day.

c. Union troops surprised Confederate troops and forced the Confederates to retreat after a quick battle.

d. Confederate troops surprised Union troops, and the unprepared Union soldiers retreated immediately
The correct answer is A. On the first day, the Confederates caught the Union troops off guard, but the Union rebounded with reinforcements on the second day to defeat the Confederates and force them to withdraw. Choice D is tempting because the Confederates surprised Grant's troops; however, Grant remained determined to win on the second day, so choice D is incorrect. Choices B and C are incorrect descriptions of the battle.
The Emancipation Proclamation stated that freed slaves could


a. vote in national, state, and local elections

b. earn compensation for enslavement

c. enroll in the U.S. military

d. serve on court juries
The correct answer is C. The Emancipation Proclamation stated that freed slaves could join the U.S. military. By the end of the Civil War, approximately 10 percent of the Union army consisted of African-Americans who supported the Union cause as soldiers, cooks, laborers, and scouts. Choices A, B, and D were not elements provided in the Emancipation Proclamation.
Three years before his attack on Harper's Ferry, John Brown was responsible for


a. leading a posse to arrest antislavery forces

b. burning the homes of slave owners in Iowa

c. murdering five proslavery settlers in Kansas

d. alerting authorities to Underground Railway stations
The correct answer is C. In 1856, John Brown and his sons kidnapped five proslavery settlers from their cabins in Kansas and brutally executed them. The event led to additional fighting in Kansas between proslavery and antislavery settlers. John Brown was a staunch abolitionist, so choices A and D are incorrect. Brown's anti-slavery activities occurred in Kansas not Iowa, so choice B is incorrect.
Which of the following states led the Deep South into secession after Lincoln's election?


a. Mississippi

b. Alabama

c. Louisiana

d. South Carolina
The correct answer is D. South Carolina was the first state to vote in favor of secession in December 1860. Mississippi followed South Carolina's lead a few weeks later, so choice A is incorrect. Alabama and Louisiana had seceded by the end of January 1861, so choices B and C are incorrect.
Which of the following correctly states Europe's involvement in the Civil War?


a. France favored the Union and showed its support by sending arms.

b. Britain favored the Confederacy and showed its support by sending arms.

c. France favored the Union but declined to provide direct support.

d. Britain favored the Confederacy but declined to provide direct support.
The correct answer is D. Both Britain and France supported the Confederacy, but neither provided direct support to the South. Britain only wanted to support the South if winning the war was likely. Cotton supplies from Egypt and India eliminated the need for Confederate cotton, so Europe decided not to recognize the Confederacy and become involved in an American war. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect.
Which of the following describes the events of 1863 known as the "Mud March"?


a. General Joseph Hooker lead troops in the Peninsula Campaign across flooded terrain in order to push back Confederate forces.

b. General Ambrose Burnside attempted to surround Confederate troops by crossing Banks' Ford, but rain forced the abandonment of the operation.

c. General Gideon Pillow attempted an assault at Fort Donelson, but his troops failed when heavy rains flooded the Cumberland River.

d. General Edward Bragg tried to stop General Robert E. Lee's forces in the Shenandoah Valley, but he was forced to retreat because of rainy conditions.
The correct answer is B. Burnside planned to surround Lee's troops by crossing Banks' Ford, but two days of heavy rain caused roads and creeks to be impossible for travel. The operation was abandoned and referred to as the "Mud March," and Burnside was relieved of command because of the debacle. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
In March 1864, which of the following was made General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States?


a. Henry W. Halleck

b. George B. McClellan

c. William T. Sherman

d. Ulysses S. Grant
The correct answer is D. After the fall of Vicksburg, Lincoln realized that Grant was the one who should command all of the Union armies as General-in-Chief. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect. McClellan had been General-in-Chief in 1861 and 1862, but he had been relieved of command for his failure to attack the Confederacy in critical situations. Halleck served in the position from 1862 until 1864 when Grant took over. Sherman served under Grant and succeeded him as General-in-Chief in 1869.
The Battle of Chancellorsville is often described as


a. Lee's perfect battle

b. Grant's finest victory

c. Lee's greatest loss

d. Grant's worst defeat
The correct answer is A. The Battle of Chancellorsville is often characterized as Lee's perfect battle. Lee managed to earn a victory over a Union force twice the size of his own through a well-planned strategy that involved dividing his smaller force to conquer General Hooker's troops. General Grant was not involved in the Battle of Chancellorsville, so choices B and D are incorrect.
General Albert Sidney Johnston was delayed in his arrival to Pittsburg Landing in April 1862 by


a. flooded rivers

b. destroyed bridges

c. inexperienced soldiers

d. miscommunication of orders
The correct answer is C. Johnston's group of inexperienced soldiers prevented him from arriving at Pittsburg Landing as soon as he had hoped. Choices A, B, and D are incorrect. Many of the Confederate units became lost during the long march to Shiloh, which caused a delay. Although rainy weather slowed the Confederate troops, flooded rivers and destroyed bridges were not an issue. Miscommunication was not an issue in this case.
Which of the following was the first major transportation change that occurred in the first half of the nineteenth century?


a. Turnpikes

b. Railroads

c. Canals

d. Bridges
The correct answer is A. Turnpikes were the first major change in American transportation history. Thousands of miles of new or improved roads made of crushed rocks were constructed in the U.S., but they were mostly built in the Northern states. Turnpike construction was followed by an era of canals and railroads, so choices B and C are incorrect. Bridges had been in existence and were modernized as needed, so choice D is incorrect.
Secessionists feared that Lincoln's government would


a. destroy the cotton-based economy of the South through the abolishment of slavery

b. regulate the cotton industry by enacting federal mandates against slaveholders

c. incorporate popular sovereignty into the debate regarding Southern slaveholders

d. appeal the "Dred Scott" decision and legalize slavery in the territories
The correct answer is A. Secessionists feared that Lincoln would abolish slavery, and the cotton industry that depended on slave labor would be destroyed. Choice D is incorrect because slaveholders would be glad if slavery became legal in the territories. Choices B and C were not concerns expressed by the South prior to secession.
Bread riots in the South were most often instigated by


a. slaves

b. soldiers

c. women

d. abolitionists
The correct answer is C. Bread riots occurred in large southern cities, such as Richmond and Atlanta, as a result of extremely high prices for basic necessities. In most instances, women who were tired of paying too much money for too little food instigated the acts of civil unrest. Choices A, B, and D are incorrect.
The Battle of the Wilderness can best be described as a


a. prolonged siege ending in Union victory

b. Union rout of the Confederate army

c. lengthy but decisive victory for the Confederate army

d. short but inconclusive confrontation
The correct answer is D. The Battle of the Wilderness is typically described as an inconclusive confrontation or a draw. The battle lasted only three days, so choice A is incorrect. More Union casualties occurred than Confederate ones, so choice B is incorrect. Although the Confederates lost fewer troops, the battle was neither lengthy nor decisive. so choice C is incorrect.
The Tenure of Office Act was passed by Congress to prevent President Johnson from firing


a. Benjamin Wade

b. Edwin Stanton

c. Charles Sumner

d. Thaddeus Stevens
The correct answer is B. Edwin Stanton, Johnson's Secretary of War, was the only Radical Republican on Johnson's cabinet. The Tenure of Office Act prevented Johnson from removing a cabinet member, such as Stanton, without Senate consent. Choices A, C, and D were Radical Republican members of Congress, who could not be fired by Johnson, so they are incorrect choices.