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190 Cards in this Set

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List the structures that make up the Urinary system (6)
2 kidneys, 2 ureters, one urinary bladder and one urethra.
At what vertebral level are the kidneys?
T12-L3
What is the function of the ureters?
To carry urine from kidney to bladder.
Where is the urinary bladder located?
Behind the pubic bone
Which kidney is lower? Why?
The right side due to the presence of the liver.
What protects the kidneys?
The 12th rib.
Are the kidneys secondarily retro, retro, or intraperitoneal?
Retroperitoneal
What directly surrounds the kidneys? What type of tissue is it?
The renal capsule surrounds the kidneys. IT is dense irregular CT.
What are the 3 tissues that support the kidneys?
Perirenal fat, renal fascia, and pararenal fat.
What is nephrotosis?
"Floating kidney" where kideny drops into the pelvis due to a deficient renal fascia or adipose tissue.
What are the 5 functions of the kidney and urinary system?
Removal of metabolic wastes and excretion of urine.
Conservation of salts, glucose, proteins and water for the body
Regulates blood pressure and acid-base balance
Involved in formation of Vitamin D
Endocrine as well as exocrine function.
What 3 hormones does the kidney secrete and what does each of them do?
Erythropoietin stimulates RBC production
Renin stimulates an increase in blood pressure
Medullipin I stimulates a decrease in blood pressure.
What is the renal hilum? Describe what goes through it and on what aspect of the kidney it is on.
The renal hilum is an indentation on the medial side. It is the entrance for renal artery, vein, lymphatics and exit of the ureter.
What is the renal sinus? WHat is contained here?
The renal sinus is an indentation into the mass of kidney. The sinus contains mostly fat.
What does the renal pelvis form? What is in the renal pelvis?
Tapers to form the ureter within the renal sinus. The renal pelvis contains branches of the renal artery, vein and lymphatic vessels. It is filled with adipose tissue.
Describe the location and appearance of the cortex. What does it contain that is diagnostic of the cortex?
The cortex is darker staining material at the periphery of the gland. It contains renal corpuscles.
Describe the location and appearance of the medulla. What is it composed of?
The medulla is a lighter staining material in the central region. It is composed of a renal pyramid and renal columns.
Where is the renal pyramid? What part of the pyramid points toward the renal sinus? What is the tip of the pyramid called? What about the base of the pyramid?
The renal pyramid is a structure found in the medulla. The apex of the pyramid points toward the renal sinus. The renal papillae are at the apical tip of the pyramid. The base of the pyramid is at the cortico-medullary junction.
Where are renal papillae found?
At the apical tip of renal pyramids in the medulla.
Where are renal columns and what are they made of?
Renal columns are cortical material extending down into the medulla between the pyramids.
What makes up a lobe of the kidney?
A pyramid plus the overlying cortical material.
What are lobules? What are the two parts of it?
A subdivision of the cortex. The two parts of it are the medullary rays and cortical labyrinth.
Where are medullary rays located?
At the center of a lobule (cortex).
Where can cortical labyrinths be found? What do they contain?
Cortical labyrinths are tubular material around the medullary rays (cortex). They contain renal corpuscles.
Describe the number of lobules and lobes found in the human kidney.
Multilobular and multilobar.
What are minor calyces and where are they found?
Cup-like structures which surrounds the apex of each renal pyramid.
How many minor calyces make up a major calyx?
2-3
What do the fusion of all the calyces form?
The renal pelvis.
What is the function of the calyces?
To drain the urine from the kidney as it is produced.
What is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney?
A uriniferous tubule.
What makes up a uriniferous tubule?
A nephron and a collecting tubule
Describe the number of nephrons in relation to number of cortical collecting tubules.
Several nephrons drain in to a single cortical collecting tublule.
What do cortical collecting tubules drain into?
Medullary collecting ducts.
What are the largest collecting ducts and where are they located? What do they empty into?
The largest collecting ducts are the papillary ducts of Bellini. They are located in the apex of the pyramid and empty into minor calyx.
Describe the parenchyma of the kidney.
Tightly packed with very little stroma (CT) but is very vascular.
Describe the path of a nephron.
Starts in cortex, with parts running in the medullary rays, dips into the medulla, returns to the cortex and uriniferous tubule then returns through the medulla to the apex of the lobe.
What are the Four parts of the nephron from proximal to distal?
Bowman’s capsule, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule.
Describe bowman’s capsule. What is it a part of? What does it consists of?
Bowman’s capsule is a dilatation at the beginning of the nephron. It is a part of the renal corpuscle and consist of bowman’s capsule and glomerulus.
What is a glomerulus? Where is it found?
An indented tuft of capillaries in a Bowman’s capsule. It is not part of the nephron.
What does a proximal tubule do and what makes it up? Where is it?
A proximal tubule comes out of and drains Bowman’s capsule. It consists of both convoluted and straight portions.
What does a proximal tubule do and what makes it up? Where is it?
A proximal tubule comes out of and drains Bowman’s capsule. It consists of both convoluted and straight portions.
Describe the convoluted portion of the proximal tubule.
A highly coiled tube in the cortex around the corpuscle.
Describe the path of the straight portion of the proximal tubule.
Dives straight down towards the medulla.
Describe the loop of henle. What is its course? What makes it up?
The loop of Henle has a hair pin turn at the bottom with descending and ascending limbs. It goes straight down into the medulla and back up into the cortex. It has both thick and thin segments based on the thickness of the epithelial lining.
What determines a thick vs. thin segment?
The thickness of the epithelial lining.
What is the distal tubule a continuation of? What makes it up? Describe its course.
The distal tubule is a continuation of the loop of Henle. It has both straight and convoluted portions. It comes back to touch the renal corpuscle of the same nephron.
What is a macula densa?
A specialized portion of the distal tubule where it touches the renal corpuscle of the same nephron.
Where does a nephron end?
By dumping into a collecting tubule.
What are the 2 types of nephrons? What is their classification based on?
Based on location, Cortical (short) nephrons and Juxtamedullary (long) nephrons.
Describe cortical nephrons. Where is their corpuscle located? Where is their loop of henle? How common are they?
The cortical nephron’s renal corpuscle is located in the outer portion of the cortex. Most of the loop of Henle is still located within the cortex or outer portion of the medulla. It is the most common type of nephron.
Describe the Juxtamedullary nephrons. Where are they located? Describe the path of their loop of henle. What two zones do they have?
The Juxtamedullary nephrons or long nephrons are adjacent to the medulla and next to the cortico medullary junction. Their loop of henle runs deep into the pyramid. They consist of both inner and outer medulla zones.
What is contained within the inner medulla zone of Juxtamedullary nephrons?
Collecting ducts and ONLY THIN segments of the loop of Henle.
What is contained within the outer medulla zone of Juxtamedullary nephrons?
THICK segments of the loop of Henle plus collecting ducts and thin segments.
What structures does the cortical labyrinth contain?
Proximal and distal convoluted tubules and renal corpuscle.
What structures do medullary rays contain?
Straight portions of proximal and distal tubules as well as collecting tubules.
Where do collecting ducts run from?
From the cortex to the apex of the pyramid.
What are collecting ducts a part of? Why?
They are a part of the uriniferous tubule NOT the nephron. They have a different embryological origin.
Describe the path of collecting ducts. What do they dump into? What structure do they pass through just before their terminal point?
The collecting ducts run down through the medullary rays and through the medulla to empty in the minor calyces through the area cribosa (sieve) at the apex of the pyramid.
What are area cribosa? Where are they located?
They are sieves located at the apex of renal pyramids.
Where are cortical collecting tubules found?
In the medullary rays of the cortex.
What do collecting tubules drain into?
Medullary collecting ducts.
What are the largest collecting ducts and where do they drain into?
The largest collecting ducts are the papillary ducts of Bellini and are located in the apex of the pyramid. They empty into the minor calyx.
What is the diagnostic feature of the cortex?
Renal corpuscles.
What do renal corpuscles consist of? (Basic structures)
A renal capsule and a glomerulus.
What is the outer layer of the renal capsule called? What kind of epithelium is it?
The outer layer of the renal capsule is the parietal layer and it is made of simple squamous epithelium.
What is Bowman’s space a part of? What is contained here?
Bowman’s space contains glomerular filtrate and is part of the renal capsule.
What is contained within renal capsule’s visceral layer? Where is the layer located? What kind of epithelium is it?
The visceral layer contains cells called podocytes. They cover the outside of capillaries that form glomerulus. They are modified simple squamous epithelium.
What does glomerular or ultrafiltrate consist of?
Fluid forced out of capillaries by hydrostatic pressure across the filtration barrier and into Bowman’s space.-
Is the glomerulus part of the Nephron?
NO!
What is the glomerus composed of?
A coiled mass of capillaries.
Describe the capillaries that make up the glomeruslus (what kind are they).
They are fenestrated capillaries without diaphragms.
What supplies/ drains a glomerulus? What other structure is its flow associated with?
An afferent arteriole supplies it, An efferent arteriole drains it. Also associated with the distal tubule.
What is the point called where the glomerulus associates with the distal tubule?
The juxtaglomerular apparatus.
Where are mesangial cells found?
Both within the glomerulus and the juxtaglomerular apparatus.
(Intraglomerular inside the glomerulus, Extraglomerular outside the glomerulus)
Where do blood vessels enter the glomerulus?
At the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle.
What is the urinary pole?
Where the proximal tubule drains Bowman's space.
What is the filtration barrier? What two fluids/structures does it seperate?
It is a structural barrier between blood within the fenestrated capillaries and the glumerular filtrate within Bowman's space.
What are the 3 structures that the filtration barrier consists of?
Fenestrated capillary, basal lamina, podocytes.
What feature do the fenestrated capillaries of the filtration barrier lack and what is the purpose of them?
Fenestrated capillaries in the filtration barrier lack diaphrams and prevent formed cellular elements from passing through the barrier.
Describe the basal lamina of the Filtration barrier. Describe the layers around the junction.
The Basal lamina of the filtration barrier is made up of the basal lamina of both epithelia i.e. Lamina lucida = Lamina densa = lamina lucida.
What proteins are contained within the filtration barrier (4)? What is it's charge? What is its overall purpose?
Collagen IV, perlecan, laminin, and fibronectin. Negative charge and it does not allow large molecules (large proteins such as immunoglobulins and albumin) to cross the barrier.
What is the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule called?
Podocytes.
What do podocytes consist of? What do they cover?
Podocytes consist of highly modified simple squamous epithelium. IT covers the outside of the fenestrated capillary and has numerous processes that encircle the capillary.
What are teh small food processes called that extend from larger processes? What cells have them?
Pedicels are a property of podocytes.
What are filtration slits and what are they covered by? What purpose does this covering have?
Filtration slits are the narrow space between the pedicels and are covered by a slit diaphragm that extends across the filtration slit. This acts as part of the filtration barrier by filtering out negatively charged ions and molecules.
Describe the pathway fluid will take through the filtration barrier (also give source of propulsion and what types of molecules are filtered out at what step).
Fluid leaves the capillary due to hydrostatic pressure. The high resistance in the EFFERENT arteriole causes fluid to pass through the fenestra of the endothelial cell. Fluid then passes through the basal lamina. The basal lamina does not allow large macromolecules or negatively charged molecules through the barrier. Fluid then passes through the diaphragms of filtration slits (pedicles of podocytes). This catches the medium sized proteins. The fluid is now in Bowman's space and is known as glomerular filtrate or ultrafiltrate. This is then drained into the proximal convoluted tubule.
What keeps the barrier sieve clean?
Intaglomerular mesangial cells which are phagocytotic.
What is albuminuria? What causes it?
Albumin in the urine due to damaged filtration barrier by hypertension, vascular injury, mercury poisoning or bacterial toxins.
What is proteinuria and what causes it?
Protein in the urine due to damaged filtration barrier by diabetes or glomerulonephritis.
What is glomerulonephritis? What is the primary cause? What characterizes it?
(Bright's disease) it is characterized by inflammation of the glomerulus. It is usually due to bacterial toxins. This makes the barrier more permeable and allows proteins and cells through.
What is located in the cortical labyrinth immediately adjacent to the gomerulus?
The convoluted portion of the proximal tubule.
Where is the straight portion of the proximal tubule located?
In medullary rays and is part of the loop of Henle.
What sort of epithelium does the straight portion of the proximal tubule have?
Simple cuboidal that is acidophilic. (DIAGNOSTIC)
Describe the lumen of the straight portion of the proximal tubule.
The straight portion of the proximal tubule's lumen is small due to being almost obliterated by the brush border on the apical surface of cells. (DIAGNOSTIC)
What is the purpose of the microvilli in the straight poriton of the proximal tubule?
To reabsorb water.
Describe the wall of the straight poriton of the proximal tubule?
Interlocking lateral cellular processes with tight juncitons.
What sort of membrane bound organelle do the cells of the straight portion of the proximal tubule have lots of?
Lots of mitochondria (radially and longitudinally oriented)
What is actively transported out of the straight portion of the proximal tubule?
Na+, Cl-, ions from the filtrate into the extracellular space outside of the tubule.
What sort of things are absorbed in the straight portion of the proximal tubule? (5)
Most water, glucose, amino acids, proteins, and bicarbonate ions.
What are the two limbs that compose the loop of Henle?
The descending and ascending limbs.
Which nephrons have a longer loop of henle, Cortical or juxtamedullary?
Cortical nephrons have a short loop while juxtamedullary nephrons have longer loops that extend into the medulla.
What are the two segments that make up the descending limb of the loop of henle and describe their epithelium?
The Thick segment is the straight portion of the proximal tubule and it is lined by simple cubiodal epithelium.
The thin segment is composed of simple squamous epithelium.
What are the segments that make up the ascending limb of the loop of Henle?
The thin and thick segments.
Describe the epithelium of the thin segment of the ascending loop of henle.
Simple squamous with a wide capillary without RBCs (DIAGNOSTIC)
Describe the epithelium of the thick segment of the ascending loop of henle.
Also the straight portion of the distal tubule, it is highly permeable to water (water enters the CT from the filtrate).
How does penicillin and Urea enter the lumen of the loop of henle?
From the CT
WHat are the two parts of the distal tubule?
The straight and convoluted.
What is the straight portion of the distal tubule AKA? Where is it located and what is its epithelium?
AKA thick segment of ascending limb of loop of Henle, It is located in the medulla in juxtamedullary nephrons and in medullary rays in cortical nephrons. It is composed of low simple cuboidal epithelium (DIAGNOSTIC)
Describe the lumen of the straight portion of the distal tubule.
Well-defined surface with a large lumen (DIAGNOSTIC)
What organelle do the cells of the straight portion of the distal tubule contain lots of and what connects them?
Lots of mitochondria, connected by tight junctions, zonula occludens.
Describe the path a distal tubule takes. What structure does it touch? What two structures does it lie between?
The distal tubule passes adjacent to its own renal corpuscle and touches the vascular pole. It lies between afferent and efferent arterioles.
What is the macula dens part of (2)?
Part of juxtaglomerular apparatus and is the part of the distal tubule that touches the afferent arteriole.
What characterizes the macula densa of the straight portion of the distal tubule?
Tall cells with tightly packed nuclei that appears darker than the rest of the tubule. (DIAGNOSTIC)
What is the convoluted portion of the distal tobule a part of?
The cortical labryinth.
Which has more sections in the cortex, the proximal convoluted tubule or the distal convoluted tubule?
The proximal convoluted tubule has more sections in the cortex.
What is the lining of the convoluted portion of the distal tubule?
Low simple cuboidal epithelium.
What does the convoluted portion of the distal tubule have that is diagnostic for it?
A distinct edge on the apical surface.
Which has a larger lumen the Distal Convoluted Tubule or the proximal convoluted tubule? Diameter? Stain darkness?
The Distal convoluted tubule is larger with a more prominent lumen but is actually smaller in diameter than the PCT. It is also paler staining than the PCT.
What indicates the end of the distal convoluted tubule?
THe collecting duct.
What is the function of the distal convoluted tubule?
Water CANNOT pass. Sodium pumps remove Na+ from filtrate and put it into the interstitium.
What releases aldosterone and what does it stimulate? (4)
Aldosterone is a hormone released by the adrenal glands. It stimulates pumping of Na+ into the CT space. It also increases water resorption, increases blood pressure, and concentrates urine.
What releases Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and what does it stimulate? (4)
It is released by atrial myocytes. It acts as a vasodialator, lwers blood pressure, and causes diuresis, it also increases glomerular filtration rate by opening afferent arteriole and constricting efferent arteriole. It also inhibits secretion of aldosterone, ADH, and renin. This then decreases the amount of Na+ ions reabsorbed and causes polyuria.
What does parathyroid hormone stimulate? (1)
Resorption of Ca++
What are the 3 parts of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
The macula densa of the proximal tubule, the juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent arteriole and the extraglomerular mesangial cells.
What is the function of the macula densa of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
To monitor volume and Na+ concentration, when levels are low they instruct juxtaglomerular apparatus cells to secrete renin.
What is the function of juxtaglomerular cells? What kind of cells are they? What are they a part of?
Juxtaglomerular cells are part of the afferent arteriole, they are modified smooth muscle cells and they secrete renin.
What secretes renin and what does it do? (pathway included)
JG cells secrete renin.
Renin converts angiotensinogen in blood to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II in the lungs. This is a vasoconstrictor so blood pressure increases. This also increases aldosterone release and increases resorption of Na+ and Cl- from the distal convoluted tubule.
Where are the extraglomerular mesangial cells? What do they do?
They are located in the space within the JG apparatus. They function as support cells.
Describe the course of the collecting ducts. (start to finish)
Starts in the cortex and runs through the medulla to empty into the minor calcyx at the apex of the pyramid.
What are the 3 portions of the collecting duct? List them from proximal to distal, small to large.
Cortical, medullary papillary.
What is the lining of the cortical collecting duct? (cell type)
Simple cuboidal epithelium.
What are the 2 types of cells found in the epithelium of the cortical collecting duct?
Principal cells and intercalated cells.
Describe intercalated cells. what kind of cells are they? What is their diagnostic characteristic? What is their function.
Intercalated cells are cuboidal cells with clearly defined lateral membranes between cells (DIAGNOSTIC). They actively transport and secrete H+ ions against a gradient.
Why type of cells do medullary collecting ducts have? Where is this section located?
It is made up of cuboidal cells that are typically located in the outer zone of the medulla. They contain both principal and intercalated cells. (Formed by numerous cortical collecting ducts)
Where do papillary collecting ducts open up into? What is this region called?
Papillary collecting ducts (ducts of Bellini) open into the minor calyx at the tip of renal papillae. This region is called area cribosa.
What is found between collecting ducts and what is their arrangement?
Interstitial cells are in the CT space between collecting ducts and they are arranged like rungs on a ladder.
What do intersitial cells secrete?
Medullipin I
What is the action of Medullipin I?
Is converted to medullipin II in the liver and is a potent vasodialator to lower blood pressure.
What is the function of the ducts?
To concentrate urine as it flows from the calyx. (usually imperpeable to water)
What will ducts do in the PRESENCE of andidiuretic hormone (ADH)? What is the process it initiates called?
Ducts will reabsorb water, concentrating urine and reducing its volume (Antidiuresis)
What will ducts do in the ABSENCE of andidiuretic hormone (ADH)? What is this process called?
Without ADH water is not reabsorbed so urine is hypotonic and there is a copious volume of urine (Diuresis)
What 4 major arteries supply the kidney?
Renal artery, interlobar arteries, arcuate arteries, interlobular arteries.
What is the origin of the renal artery, and interlobar arteries? Where do the arcuate and interlobular arteries run?
The renal artery is from the aorta and the interlobar arteries are formed from the renal artery.
The arcuate arteries arches between the medulla and the cortex at the junction and the interlobular arteries run radially.
What do afferent arterioles supply in the kidney?
Individual glomeruli
What drains the blood from a glomerulus?
Efferent arteriole.
Do the cortex and the medulla have the same blood supply? What is the source of their blood?
They do NOT have the same blood supply but they both get their blood from Efferent arterioles.
What is the peritubular capillary network? Where is it found? What does it consist of? What does it drain?
The peritubular capillary network consists of small capillaries surrounding proximal and distal tubules in the cortical labyrinth. They drain into the interlobular veins.
What forms the vasa recta? Where do they run? What do they drain into?
Efferent arterioles from the Juxtamedullary nephrons form the vasa recta. These are long large capillaries which run straight down into the medulla alongside the collecting ducts. They drain back into arcuate veins.
What is the vasa recta important? (function)
They pick up reabsorbed water and essential ions from the CT and return back to the body after the unwanted wastes are removed.
What drains the peritubular capillary network?
Interlobular veins.
What are the 4 veins found in the kidney?
Interlobular, arcuate, interlobar and renal.
What lines the Calyx minor (epithelium)? What is the purpose of this lining?
Transitional epithelium which forms a barrier.
What are the renal papillae covered with (epithelium)?
Tall columnar to transitional epithelium.
What lines the Calyx minor (epithelium)?
Transitional epithelium.
What moves urine down the Renal pelvis?
Smooth muscle layer.
What is the region of kidney stone formation?
Renal pelvis.
What forms kidney stones?
Precipitation of minerals from urine. (Calcium phosphate, carbonate and uric acid).
What causes kidney stones (biological states) and what is their treatment?
Dehydration, pH imbalance, excess calcium, frequent urinary tract infections, and retention. Lithotrispy is the treatment (ultrasound break up the calculi)
From where to where do the ureters extend?
From the renal pelvis of the kidney to the posterior aspect of the urinary bladder.
What lines the ureter?
Transitional epithelium, is impervious to liquid and does NOT absorb any back into the body.
What are the 3 layers of the ureter wall?
Mucosa, muscularis, adventitia.
What type of epithelium is the mucosa of the ureter? Describe the lumen of the ureter.
Transitional epithelium with a lamina propria. It has a star-shaped lumen (DIAGNOSTIC)
What is the arrangement of smooth muscle in the muscularis layer of the ureter? Is it the same throughout the ureter?
Their are 2 layers of smooth muscle. The inner is longitudinal and the outer is circular. The lower 1/3 of the ureter has a 3rd layer of longitudinal muscle.
WHat makes up the adventitia of the ureter?
CT layer
What moves urine along the ureters?
A peristaltic wave of smooth muscle in the muscularis.
What bone is the urinary bladder located behind?
The pubic bone
Describe the bladder's shape.
A pear with a narrow neck pointing down.
Describe how ureters enter the bladder.
They enter into the posterior aspect of the badder and run diagonally through the wall to form a valve like structure to prevent back flow of urine.
What is the Trigone?
A flattened triangle of epithelium on the posterior wall of the bladder.
What are the 3 layers of the wall of the bladder?
Mucosa, Muscularis, adventitia.
What type of epithelium is the mucosa of the bladder?
Transitional epithelium.
Describe the cells on the surface of the mucosa of the bladder.
Dome shaped cells on the surface (DIAGNOSTIC)
What forms when the bladder is not distended?
More layers of cells (12-15 vs 4-6) are visible and accordian-like plaques of membrane form.
Describe the lamina propria of the bladder.
Thin CT layer
What kind of muscle makes up the muscularis layer of the bladder? What is its name? What is its arrangement?
It is smooth muscle called the Detrusor muscle. The arrangement is Inner longitudinal, middle circular, outer longitudinal.
What does the serous coat or adventitia of the bladder consist of?
CT
What forms the internal sphincter of the urethra?
A circular smooth muscle layer.
What forms the external sphincter of the urethra? What is a part of?
It is lower down around the urethra from the internal and it is made of skeletal muscle. IT is a part of the urogenital diaphragm.
What is micturation? What sort of impulses/muscle is required for this?
The act of expelling urine from the bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body. Requires both involuntary and voluntary impulses.
Describe how both the sensation of the need to urinate and the actual process of urination occurs.
Stretch receptors in the bladder wall sends impulses to the spinal cord. Parasympathetic impulses cause contraction of the detrusor muscle and relaxation of the internal sphincter. The conscious portion of the brain then sends impulses for external sphincter to relax and urination follows.
Describe the path the urethra takes.
Goes through the urogenital diaphragm and comes out inferior to the pelvic bone.
What is the shape of the lumen of the urethra?
Crescent shaped.
Describe the transition of the epithelium of the bladder to the external orifice.
Transitional to tall columnar to stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium.
What surrounds the urethra?
A smooth muscle layer.
Which urethra is longer, male or female?
Male
What causes incontinence?
Normal for infants, in adults is due to nerve injury, bladder irritation (infection) and trauma to the sphincter.
What is rentention?
The failure to completely void urine.
What is urethrities?
Urethral infection.
What is cystistis? More common in male or female?
Bladder infection. More common in female.
What is pyelonephritis?
Inflammation of the renal pelvis.