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52 Cards in this Set

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Urinary Function
Maintaining blood volume by retaining water
Nephron
The functional unit of the urinary system it produces filtrate and reabsorbs the water from the filtrate
How does the urinary system regulate blood volume and blood pressure?
by regulating the amount og water from the filtrate that has been reabsorbed
Kidney
to produce the filtrate which changes into urine. It is retroperitoneal. "floating kidneys" are held in place by fat and muscles and has a cortex and medulla
Petosis
When you have a kink in your ureter from when your kidneys drop
Kidney stones
percipitated salts that go through your ureter and can cause death if they are too big
Renal Capsule
Irregular Dense Connective Tissue and is made up of 2 main layers the renal cortex and the renal medulla
Ureter
transports urine from kidney to the urinary bladder-retroperitoneal
parastolic contractions push urine
Fiberous trigones
where the Ureters dump into the urinary bladder
Urinary bladder
temporary storage for urine
male-located between the rectum and pubic synthesis
female-located between the uterus and pubic synthesis
Urethera
has an internal and external Urinary sphinctor that controls when it is released from the body
females-1inch
male-7 or 8inches
How many times does the water pass through the osomotic gradient?
twice
Renal Corpuscle
consists of the glomerulus and the bowmans capsule
Glomerulus
capillary bed that is surrounded by a capsule of irregular dense connective tissue called bowmans capsule
How does filtrate bass through the nephron?
glomerulus
blood pressure pushes it to
proximal convoluted tubule
descending limb
ascending limb
distal convoluted tubule
collecting duct
papillary duct
minor caylx
major caylx
renal pelvis
Ascending Limb
is impermible to water so the volume stays the same.
Also the sodium potassium pump is in the ascending limb
Distal Convoluted tubule
gets rid of extra hydrogen is the body has too much acid. It also gets rid of toxins and drugs
How can urine be more dilute?
It depends on how hydrated the body is. If the body is hdrated then it might absorb only 15% water when passing through the collecting duct. If you are not hydrated enough then the collecting duct will absorb 19% of the water from the collecting ducts which will make the urine more concentrated
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
to absorb nutrients and ions
Descending Limb
absorption of water
Urea
Creates most of the osomotic concentration in the medulla
3 processes-->Urine
1.filteration at glomerulus
2.Tubular resorption-PCT and glomerulus
3.Tubular secretion-DCT
Counter Current Mechanism
blood is flowing counter to the filtrate
Why is Afferent larger then Efferent in diameter?
so enough blood pressure is used to push water out of the capillary bed
What is the Glomerulus made up of?
Finestrae
Podocytes
Filteration Slits
Podocytes
used to support the wall of the Glomerulus so it doesnt rupture under blood pressure
Finestrae
in the wall of the capillary bed of the glomerulus
Filteration Slits
Allows the filtrate to pass out of the glomerulus
GFR-Glomelor Filteration Rate
125mL per min
180L per day
50gallons
1.2L of urine
178L of water is reabsorbed
6m2 of filteration surface area
1million nephrons
Urine pH
6
ranges (4-8)
Urine Specific Gravity
The weight of urine per unit volume
1cm3=1gram of water
1cm3=1.003grams-1.03g urine
Urine Osmolarity
mesure of concentration of urine
855-1335miliosomoles
Urine water content
97%-93%
Urine Volume
1.2L per day
Urine Color
normally a clear yellow
Urine Odor
Varies by composition
Urine Bacteria
Should be sterile, otherwise it means that you have a UTI
Juxtaglomeulor apparatus
when the blood pressure drops in the glomerulus it then releases renin
what happens when you use renin?
it causes a vaso constriction, so that there is higher blood pressure and the higher the blood pressure, more filtrate is produced which causes the production of aldosrone
3 regulators
local-Juxtaglomeulor apparatus
2.ANS-sympathetic&parasympathetic
3.Hormones
ANS
parasympathetic-controls blood pressure to create filtrate
sympathetic-shuts the system down
Aldostrone
increase in the Na/K pump, which increases the amount of Na absorbed and the amount of K lost
ADH
allows the DCT and the collecting duct to be more impermiable to water
ANP
Shuts hormones down so you dont absorb more water, it also causes you to dilute the urine
Fluid
water is either intracellular or extracellular
66% of water is intracellular
How do we gain water?
40% by drinking
48% from water in food
12% hydrolysis
How do we loose water?
we loose 2500mL a day=2.5L
perspiration-up to 4L per hour when you are hot and working
defication-75%-feces
Water soluble nutriends
lost through the urine, feces, perspiration
Fat soluble nutrients
stored in the adipose tissue
Acid/Base Balance
the amount of H+ produces will be the amount that is released
3 ways the body maintains pH balance
1.respiratory system-carbonic acid
2.Urinary System-excrete excess H+
3.Blood proteins-Albumins
What do doctors have to check before a person in the hospital can go home?
their fluid, electrolytes and acid/base balance