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99 Cards in this Set

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Kidneys
two structures on each side of the lumbar region that filter blood & secrete impurities, forming urine.
Cortex
outer part of the kidneys
cortex = bark
Hilum
indented opening in the kidney where vessels enter and leave
Medulla
inner part of the kidney
calyces (calises)
system of ducts carrying urine from the nephrons to the renal pelvis
Nephron
microscopic functional units of the kidney, comprised of kidney cells and capillaries, each capable of forming urine
Glomerulus
little ball shaped cluster of capillaries located at the top of each nephron
Bowman's capsule
top part of the nephron that encloses the glomerulus
Renal Tubule
stem portion of the nephron
Ureter
tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder
renal pelvis
basin like portion of the ureter within the kidney
Uteropelvic Junction
point of connection between the renal pelvis and ureter
urinary bladder
sac that holds urine
urethra
single canal that carries urine to the outside of the body
urethral meatus
opening in the urethra to the outside of the body
urine
fluid produced by the kidneys containing water and waste products
urea
waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine
creatinine
waste product of muscle metabolism filtered out of the blood by kidneys and excreted in urine
albuminuria or proteinuria
presence of albumin in the urine; occurs in renal disease or in normal urine after heavy exercise
anuria
absence of urine formation
bacteriuria
presence of bacteria in the urine
dysuria
painful urination
enuresis
to void urine; involuntary discharge of the urine, most often refers to a lack of bladder control
nocturnal enuresis
bed wetting during sleep
hematuria
presence of blood in the urine
glucosuria
presence of glucose in the urine
incontinence
involuntary discharge of urine of feces
stress urinary incontinence
involutary discharge of urine during a cough, sneeze, and/or strained exercise
ketonuria
presence of ketone bodies in the urine
ketone compounds
acetone, beta-hydrobutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid are products of metabolism that appear in the urine as a result of an abnormal utilization of carbohydrates
nocturia
urination at night
oliguria
scanty production of urine
polyuria
condition of excessive urination
pyuria
presence of white cells in the urine, usually indicating infection
urinary retention
retention of urine owing to the inability to void naturally because of spasm, obstruction, etc
Adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD)
inherited condition of multiple cysts that gradually form in the kidney, causing destruction of normal tissue that leads to renal failure
glomerulonephritis
form of nephritis involving the glomerulus
hydronephrosis
dilation and pooling of urine in the renal pelvis and calyces of one or both kidneys caused by an obstruction of the outflow of urine
nephritis
inflammation of the kidney
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the renal pelvis
nephrosis
degenerative disease of the renal tubules
nephrolithiasis
presence of mineral stones in the kidneys commonly caused by hyperuricuria or hypercalciuria
cystitis
inflammation of the bladder
urethritis
inflammation of the urethra
urethrocystitis
inflammation of the urethra and bladder
urethral stenosis
narrowed condition of the urethra (sten/o = narrow)
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
invasion of pathogenic organisms in the structures of the urinary tract, especially in the urethra and bladder
uremia or azotemia
excessive urea and nitrogenous waste in the blood as a result of kidney failure
cystometrogram
record that measures urinary volume, bladder pressure, and capacity to evaluate urinary dysfunction such as incontinence
cystoscopy
examination of the bladder using a rigid or flexible cystoscope
kidney biopsy or renal biopsy (Bx)
removal of kidney tissue for pathological examination
intravenous pyelogram or intravenous urogram (IVP)
x-ray of the urinary tract after iodine is injected into the bloodstream and as the contrast passes through the kidney, revealing obstruction, evidence of trauma, etc
Kidney, Ureter, Bladder (KUB)
abdominal x-ray of kidney, ureter, and bladder typically used as a scout before IVP
scout film
plain x-ray to detect pathologies before further imaging
renal angiogram or arteriogram
x-ray of the renal artery made after injecting contrast material into a catheter in the artery
retrograde pyelogram (RP)
x-ray of upper urinary tract to detect presence of stones or obstruction
voiding cystourethrogram (VCU or VCUG)
x-ray of urethra and bladder taken during urination
abdominal sonogram
ultrasound of the urinary tract including the kidney, ureters, and bladder
urinalysis
physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine
specific gravity (SpGr)
kidneys ability to concentrate or dilute urine
pH (urinalysis)
the measurement of acidity or alkalinity of the urine
glucose (urinalysis)
chemical test to see if glucose is present in the urine
albumin or protein (urinalysis)
chemical test to see if albumin or protein is in the urine
ketones (urinalysis)
ketone detection in the urine
occult blood, urine
chemical test of hidden blood in the urine resulting from hemolysis indicates bleeding in the kidneys (occult = hidden)
bilirubin (urinalysis)
chemical test for bilirubin in the urine seen in gallbladder and liver disease
urobilinogen (urinalysis)
chemical test for bile pigment in the urine seen excessively in gallbladder and liver disease
nitrite (urinalysis)
chemical test for bacteria in the urine
microscopic findings (urinalysis)
microscopic indentification of abnormal constituents in the urine as per high or low power field
urine culture & sensitivity (C&S)
isolation of a urine specimen in a culture medium that propagates the growth of microscopic organisms; organisms that grow in the culture are identified, and drugs to which they are sensitive to are listed
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
blood test to determine the level of urea in the blood; a high BUN indicates the kidney's inability to excrete urea
creatinine, serum
test for level of creatinine in the blood; useful in assessing kidney function
creatinine, urine
test for level of creatinine in urine
creatinine clearance testing
measurements of the level of creatinine in the blood and a 24 hour urine specimen to determine the rate of creatinine cleared from the blood by the kidneys
urologic endoscopic surgery
use of specialized endoscopes within the urinary tract to perform various surgical procedures
resectoscope
urologic endoscope sent through the urethra to resect lesions of the bladder urethra or prostate
intracorporeal lithotripsy
method of destroying stones within the urinary tract using electrical energy discharges transmitted to a probe within a flexible endoscope
nephrotomy
incision into kidneys
nephrorraphy
suture of kidney
nephrolithotomy
incision to remove kidney stones
nephrectomy
excision of the kidney
pyeloplasty
reconstruction of the renal pelvis
stent placement
use of a device to hold open vessels or tubes
kidney transplantation or renal transplantation
transfer of a kidney from the body of one person to another
urinary diversion
creation of a temporary or permanent diversion to pass urine outside of the body
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
procedure using ultrasound to penetrate the body from outside and bombard and disintergrate a stone within
kidney dialysis
methods of filtering impurities from the blood to replace the function of one or both kidneys due to renal failure
hemodialysis
method to remove impurities by pumping the patient's blood through a dialyzer, the specialized filter of the artificial kidney machine
peritoneal dialysis
method of removing impurities using the peritoneum as the filter; catheter insertion in the peritoneal cavity is required to deliver cleansing fluid that is washed in and out of in cycles
analgesic
drug that relieves pain
antibiotic
drug that kills or inhibits growth of microorganisms
antispasmodic
drug that relieves spasms
diuretic
drug that increases the secretion of urine
BUN
Blood Urea Nitrogen
C&S
urine Culture & Sensitivity
IVP
IntraVenous Pyelogram
KUB
Kidney Ureter Bladder
UA
UrinAlysis
UTI
Urinary Tract Infection