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45 Cards in this Set

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name the four functions of the body?
1. absortion
2. distribution
3. metabolism
4. excretion
mineral replacement for dialysis


ferrous sulfate
Feosol
route: po
ind: dialysis, also for Fe deficency
dose: hemodialysis: (900 mg) peritoneal dialysis (500-900 mg)
>>constipation, black stools
iron supp. are usu. given with stool softeners to counteract side effect of constipation
blood former


epoetinaefa (erythropoietin)
Epogen, Procrit
route: SC or IV
ind: dialysis
dose: for dialysis patients 75 units/kg 3x weekly
>>HTN, HA, nausea, emesis
must be kept refrigerated
name drug action of thiazide and thiazide-like agents?
the equal increase of urinary excretion of the ions Na and Cl. this is done by the inhibition of the normal process of reabsorption within the ascending tubule folloing the loop Henle and in the early distal tubules. they also increase the loss of K and HCO3, so a K supplement must be taken with this type of medication.
name common side effects of thiazide and thiazide-like agents
frequent urination. taken early in the day, one can avoid or reduce nocturia
thiazide or thiazide-like agents


indapamide
Lozol
ind: edema resulting from HTN, CHF, and other conditions
route: po
dose 2.5 mg qd
action: the equal increase of urinary excretion of the ions Na and Cl. this is done by the inhibition of the normal process of reabsorption within the ascending tubule folloing the loop Henle and in the early distal tubules. they also increase the loss of K and HCO3, so a K supplement must be taken with this type of medication.
>> HA, dizzy, upset stomach,frequent urination. taken early in the day, one can avoid or reduce nocturia
Tk c food or milk
do not crush tablet
thiazide or thiazide-like agent



hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)
Esidrix
ind: edema resulting from HTN, CHF, and other conditions
route: po
dose: 25-100 mg qd or intermittently
action: the equal increase of urinary excretion of the ions Na and Cl. this is done by the inhibition of the normal process of reabsorption within the ascending tubule folloing the loop Henle and in the early distal tubules. they also increase the loss of K and HCO3, so a K supplement must be taken with this type of medication.
>>GI upset and photosensitivity, frequent urination. taken early in the day, one can avoid or reduce nocturia
Tk c food or milk
thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics


chlorothiazide
Diuril
ind: edema resulting from HTN, CHF, and other conditions
route: po, IV
dose: .5 to 1 g qd or bid
action: the equal increase of urinary excretion of the ions Na and Cl. this is done by the inhibition of the normal process of reabsorption within the ascending tubule folloing the loop Henle and in the early distal tubules. they also increase the loss of K and HCO3, so a K supplement must be taken with this type of medication.
>>photosensitivity, frequent urination. taken early in the day, one can avoid or reduce nocturia
Tk c food or milk
thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics



metolazone
Zaroxyln
ind: edema resulting from HTN, CHF, and other conditions
route: po
dose: 5-20 mg qd
action: the equal increase of urinary excretion of the ions Na and Cl. this is done by the inhibition of the normal process of reabsorption within the ascending tubule folloing the loop Henle and in the early distal tubules. they also increase the loss of K and HCO3, so a K supplement must be taken with this type of medication.
>>photosensitivity,frequent urination. taken early in the day, one can avoid or reduce nocturia
Tk c food or milk
name drug action of loop diuretics?
loop diuretics inhibit reabsorption of Na and Cl in the proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule and within the loop of Henle.
name side effects of loop diuretics?
a great deal of K is loss during treatment on loop diuretics, therefore a K supp. is usually prescribed
loop diuretic



bumetidine
Bumex
ind: edema caused by CHF and/or HTN
route: po
dose: .5 to 2 mg qd to bid
action: loop diuretics inhibit reabsorption of Na and Cl in the proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule and within the loop of Henle.
>>GI upset, dizziness ligheadedness
a great deal of K is loss during treatment on loop diuretics, therefore a K supp. is usually prescribed
Tk c food or milk
loop diuretic



torsemide
Demadex
ind: edema caused by CHF and/or HTN
route: po, IV
dose: 10-20 mg qd
action: loop diuretics inhibit reabsorption of Na and Cl in the proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule and within the loop of Henle.
>>dizzy, ligheadedness, photosensitivity
a great deal of K is loss during treatment on loop diuretics, therefore a K supp. is usually prescribed

does not need to be taken with food or milk
loop diuretic



furosemide
Lasix
ind: edema caused by CHF and/or HTN
route: po, IV
dose: 20-80 mg daily
action: loop diuretics inhibit reabsorption of Na and Cl in the proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule and within the loop of Henle.
>>GI upset
Tk c food or milk
name drug action of potassium-sparing agents?
The K-sparing agents work primarily in the distal convoluted tubule and inhibit Na reabsorption, which decreases K loss.
what cautions should people on K-sparing diuretics take?
people on K-sparing diuretics shold avoid large quantities of K-rich food
K-sparing diuretic



amiloride
Midamore
ind: edema caused by CHF and HTN
route: po
dose: 5 mg qd
action: The K-sparing agents work primarily in the distal convoluted tubule and inhibit Na reabsorption, which decreases K loss.
>>GI upset, dizziness, HA, visual disturbances
Tk c food
K-sparing diuretic



spironolactone
Aldactone
ind: edema caused by CHF and HTN
route: po
action: The K-sparing agents work primarily in the distal convoluted tubule and inhibit Na reabsorption, which decreases K loss.
dose: for edema: 25-200 mg qd
>>drowziness, mental confusion, dizzy
K-sparing diuretic


triamterene
Dyrenium
ind: edema caused by CHF and HTN
route: po
dose: 100 mg bid pc
action: The K-sparing agents work primarily in the distal convoluted tubule and inhibit Na reabsorption, which decreases K loss.
>>GI upset, HA
tk pc
name drug action of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?
these drugs inhibit carbonic anhydrase they inhibit H ion secretion by the renal tubule causing an increase in urination of Na, KHCO3, and H20
name side effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?
possible GI upset, photosensitivity and drowsiness
carbonic anhydrase inhibitor


acetazolamide
Diamox
route: po, IV, IM
dose: 250-375 mg qd
action: these drugs inhibit carbonic anhydrase they inhibit H ion secretion by the renal tubule causing an increase in urination of Na, KHCO3, and H20
Tk c meals
>>possible GI upset, photosensitivity and drowsiness
name drug action of osmotics
osmotics ihibit tubular reabsorption of H2O by increasing the osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate.
name types of incontinence
stress
urge
reflex
functional
overflow
describe stress incontinence
stress incontinence is due to relaxed pelvic muscles because of lower estrogen levels, or mutiple pregnancies
describe urge incontinence
urge incontinence is due to CNS disorders sucha s Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease tumors, and bladder disorders.
describle reflex incontinence
reflex incontinence is due to CNS disorder
describe functional incontinence?
functional incontinence is due to age: older adults lose mobility or balance
describe overflow incontinence
overflow incontinence is due to Hyper plasia, bladder neck obstruction following surgery
conditions affecting the urinary system

anuria
lack of urine: <100mL/24h
cystitis
inflammation of the bladder
edema
increase in fluid in cells, tissues, and/or cavities
hyperkalemia
excessive increase of K in the blood
hypokalemia
excessive decrease of K in the blood
incontinence
lack of control of urination or feces
Oliguria
little urine output: >100mL/24h but <400mL/24h
Polyuria
Excessive or large volume of urine within a certain time
Pyelonephritis
inflammation of the kidney
uremia
excess urea in the blood
urethritis
inflammation of the urethra
urolithiasis
kidney stomes name of calcium or salts
Osmotic

mannitol
Osmitrol
action: osmotics ihibit tubular reabsorption of H2O by increasing the osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate.
Ind: They provide prophlaxis of acute renal failure when the glomerular filtration is reduced. also used for IOP in glaucoma.
route: inj
strength: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%
dose: 20-200 g given over 24h
Osmotic

Urea
Ureaphil
action: osmotics ihibit tubular reabsorption of H2O by increasing the osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate.
ind: They provide prophlaxis of acute renal failure when the glomerular filtration is reduced.
route: inj
strength: 40g/150mL
dose: 30% sol. by slow IV infusion not to exceed 4mL/min
osmotic


glycerin
Osmoglyn
action: osmotics ihibit tubular reabsorption of H2O by increasing the osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate.
ind: They provide prophlaxis of acute renal failure when the glomerular filtration is reduced.
route: po sol.
strength: 50%
dose: 1-2g/kg, 1 to 1.5 h before surgery
Osmotic


Isosorbide
Ismotic
action: osmotics ihibit tubular reabsorption of H2O by increasing the osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate.
ind: They provide prophlaxis of acute renal failure when the glomerular filtration is reduced.
route: po sol.
strength: 45%
dose: 1-3g/kg bid to qid prn