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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the urinary system filters blood and returns______and ____to the bloodstream
water and solutes
functions of kidneys:
reg.of blood _____
re. of blood _________and glucosereg. of blood _______
reg of blood _________
release of ___________and ________
excretion of ___________
ions,osmorality,volume,pressure,erythropoietin and calcitriol,wastes
an increase in _____causes an increase in blood pressure.
renin
The kidneys produce two hormones____,the active form of vitamin ____,and _____that stimulates production of red blood cells
cacitriol,erythropoietin
like the liver the kidneys can use the amino acid glutamine in the synthesis of ________molecules
glucose
some wastes excreted include ______and ______from the deamination of amino acids,__________from the catabolism of hemoglobin ,_________from the breakdown of muscle,and _______acid from the catabolism of nucleic acid
amonnia,urea:::bilirubin:::creatine":::uric acid
because the kidneys are posterior to the peritonium they are said to be _____
retroperitoneal
3 layers of tissue surround the kidneys Deep to outer:______<_____<_____>
renal capsule,adipose capsul,renal fascia
the kidneys are ____to ___" long and _____to ____ "wide
4-5,2-3
protected by (kidneys)___and___ribs with ____kidney lower
11 and 12,,,right
the kideys are made of two distinct regions the____and the _____
renal medulla and renal cortex
the renal medulla consists of 8 to 18 cone shaped _______
renal pyramids
The renal pyramids are separated by renal_____and renal______point toward center of kidney
columns,papilla
The renal cortex is separated into an outerzone called________and an inner zone called _____.
cortical zone, juxtamedullary zone
the parenchyma is the renal ____and the renal_____combined.
cortex and pyramids
cuplike structures (______)collect urine from papillary ducts of the papilla.These calyces empty into the ________which empties into the ureter
minor calyx,renal pelvis
The kidneys recieve ______% of teh resting cardiac output.
25
_________supplies nutrients to medulla wthout disrupting osmolarity form
vasa recta
____________vasomotor nerves regulate blood flow and renal resistance by______arterioles
sympathetic,,,altering
most renal nerves originate in the _________ ____________and pass through the _________ _______ into the kidneys along with the renal arteries.
celiac ganglion,renal plexus
each nephron consists of two parts ; a ________and a_________
renal corpuscle, renal tubule
the two components of the renal corpuscle are the ____________(capillary network) and ___________ (a double walled epithelium cup)
glomerulus,glomerular capsule bowmans
_________ = site of plasma filtration
_________ is capillaries where filtration occurs
________________ is double-walled epithelial cup that collects filtrate
Renal corpuscle, glomerulus,glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
Collecting ducts and __________drain urine to the_________ and ureter
papillary ducts ,renal pelvis
about 80% of the nephrons are ________.Therir renal corpuscles lie in the outer portion of cortex,and have short loops of Henle.they recieve their blood supply from___________that arise from efferent art.
cortical nephrons,peritubular capillaries
juxtaglomerular cells contain______
smooth muscle
principal cells have _____for both______and ___________
receptors ,,,ADH,aldosterone
a smaller no . of cells of the DCT are intercalated cells which help regulate blood ________
PH
signs of kidney disfuntion do not show till _________ of normal.
25%
Proximal convoluted tubule is made of ________with ___________.
Descending loop of henle is made of _________.
ascending loop made from________,wher it forms Juxtaglomerular apparatus that makes contact with afferent a.
simple cuboidal,.brush border,simple squamous,simple cuboidal to low columnar
the ________is a special part of ascending limb
macula densa
distal convoluted + collecting ducts are made of simple cuboidal composed Of _______+_______which have microvilli
principle,intercalated
to produce urine nephrons perform 3 functionsglomerular filtration,______and _________
tubular reabsoption ,tubular secretion
_____ cover cappilaries ( inrenal corpuscle)to form visceral layer
podocytes
__________is the structur that makes contact with ascendinglimg of loop of Henle.
juxtagloermular apparatus
____________ is the thicki=ened part of the ascending limb, these cells are modified __________cells in arteriole
macula densa,muscle
filtration fraction is _____5 of plasma.this would be ______gallons perday.but 99% of filtrate is reabsobed by the tubular reabsoption and leave ____to____ liters of excreted urine per day.
20%,48 gallons,1 to 2 liters
filtration membrane:the filtrtion membrane permits filtration of water and small solutes but not ______<_____and______
proteins, blood cellsd, and platelets
the contractile cells in the glomerulus capillaries and in the cleft between the afferent and efferent caps.are called ______
mesangial cells
amount of filtration rate per min. in adults is ________ per min
125ml
Net filtration pressure approx.______
10mm hg
tree mechanism regulate GFR________autoregulation<neural reg.,,and _______regulation
renal, hormonal
Renal auto regulation consists of 2 mechanisms_________and __________.
myogenic mechanism,tubuloglomerular feedback
atrial nattriuratic peptid(ANP)________GFR
increases
angiotensin II _____GFR
decreases
solute reabsobed by ______and _____process (in proximal convoluted tubule),water follows by_____,small proteins by___________.
active and passive,,,osmosis,pinocytosis
reabsorption routes include:leaking between cells known as ______and _______reabsorption where material moce through goth the apical and basal membranes of the tubule By _________.
paracellualar reabsorption (diffusions )(50%),transcelluar reabsoption by active transport
apical and basolateral membranes of tubule cells have differeint________of transport_____
types,proteins
several transport systems exists to reabsorb sodium ions .ATP sodium potassium pumpused to transport thru ________membrane only.
basilateral
______water reabsorption occurs when wateris
"obliged" to follow the solutes.
obligatory
___________water reabsorption is regulated by ADH
facultative
if blood glucose levels are above 200mg/ml the renal symporters cannot work fast enough to absorb all the glucose this is called ___________.the most common cause is diabetes mellitus
glucosuria
in the proximal convoluted tubule NA+/H+ antiporters ______NA+ while _____H+
reabsorb,secreting
glucose ,amino acids ,lactic acid and vitamens are reabsorbed by __________in the __________.
symporters,proximal convoluted tubule
proximal convoluted tubule cells produce ____+ elease _________ion to the peritubular capillaries
H+,bicorbonate
in the second half of the PCT because of electrochemical gradients for ___,___,__,and _____promote there passive diffusion into capillaries.especially permeable due to ___________channels
CL-,K+,MG+,Ca++and urea,aquaporin-1
ammonia is a poison waste product produced by the deamination of _________.most is converted to _____ which is less toxic.Both ammonia & urea are filtered at the ________ & secreted in the PCT.PCT cells deaminate glutamine in a process that generates both NH3 and ___________ion.
amino acids,urea,glomerus,new bicarbonate
Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle since many nutrients were reabsorbed as well, osmolarity of tubular fluid is close to that of _________.Sets the stage for independent regulation of both ______ &_________ of body fluids
blood,volume,osmolarity
Thick limb of loop of Henle has _____________that reabsorb these ions._________ passively move to the vasa recta.the _____ goes back to lumen and most of the reabsoption is _____an______.
Na+ K- Cl- symporters ,Cations,K+,Na+,CL-
DCT is major site where _________stimulates reabsorption of Ca+2
parathyroid hormone
Cells in the collecting duct ;–________ reabsorb Na+ and secrete K+..________reabsorb K+ & bicarbonate ions and secrete H+
principal cells,intercalated cells
____________ increases Na+ and water reabsorption & K+ secretion by principal cells by stimulating the synthesis of new pumps and channels.
Aldosterone
Hormonal Regulation:_________•decreases GFR by vasoconstricting afferent arteriole •enhances absorption of Na+ •promotes aldosterone production which causes principal cells to reabsorb more Na+ and Cl- and less water •increases blood volume by increasing water reabsorption
angiotensin II and aldosterone
_________________•inhibits reabsorption of Na+ and water in PCT & suppresses secretion of aldosterone & ADH •increase excretion of Na+ which increases urine
atrial natriuretic peptide
________is released from juxtaglomerular cells due to blood pressure decrease and ___________stimulation
renin,sympathetic
________controls whether dilute or concentrated urine is formed –if lacking, urine contains high ratio of water to solutes
•ADH this also occurs during hemorrage or severe hydration
a large increas in blood volumn promotes an increase in_________________from the heart and this inhibits water reab. in PCT.
atrial natriuretic peptide
Water ________in thin limb, but ions __________ in thick limb of loop of Henle create a filtrate more dilute than plasma
reabsorbed ,reabsorbed
Principal cells do not reabsorb water if ______ is low
ADH
•H2O Reabsorption –_______---65% –______---15% –______----10-15% –_____________--- 5-10% with ADH
PCT,loop,DCT,collecting duct
Substances that slow renal reabsorption of water & cause diuresis (increased urine flow rate)
Diuretics
Evaluation of Kidney Function can be done by__________and ___________.
Urinalysis,blood urea nitrogen test (BUN)
____________ of substance from the blood in ml/minute (important in drug dosages)
renal plasma clearance
Anatomy of Ureters
10 to 12 in long ,1-10 mm ,
Histology of Ureters;mucosa is__________ & lamina propria
muscularis :::inner longitudinal & outer _________ smooth muscle layer,distal 1/3 has additional longitudinal layer
transitional epithelium,circular
Location of Urinary Bladder,,,________ to pubic symphysis
Posterior,
Anatomy of Urinary Bladder;;Hollow, distensible muscular organ with capacity of_________.
700 - 800 mL
muscularis (known as _________) •3 layers of smooth muscle
detrusor muscle)
__________is when Stretch receptors signal spinal cord and brain –when volume exceeds 200-400 mL and voiding happenens.
Micturition
Urinary Incontinence means___________
Lack of voluntary control over micturition
sugar in urine
glycosuria
blood in urine
hematuria
pain in bladder or kid
Dysuria
excessive urine
polyurea
renal calculi
stones