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17 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 2 cell types in collecting tubules?
Principal cells: weak staining, luminal microvilli but no brush border

Intercalated cells: dark staining, no interdigitation
1) JG cells in afferent arteriole
2) macula densa cells in DCT
3) extraglomerular mesangial cells (light staining, fxn unknown)
What do JG cells do?
Secrete renin, which converts precursur to angiotensin I
Muscle layers in ureter
Opposite of GI:

Inner: longitudinal
Outer: circular
Muscle layers for bladder and urethra
Also kinda backwards, wiht inner layer longitudinal
Hormone effect summaries:
1) angiotensin 2: increases NA/hoh absorption in PCT
2) Aldosterone: increases na/hoh absorption in TAL, DCT, CT
3) ADH/vasopressin: no effect on Na absorption. But it makes CT permeable to water, and water rushes out, making urine more dense.
4) ANP: increases exretion of nacl and hoh
What gets into filtrate?
Anything smaller than 10 nm
Stuff that is not super negative charged

(no protein gets thru, no macromolecules)
What are mesangial cells?
contractile cells around glomerular caps, sensitive to ang II and ANF that cause constriction/dilation respectively.
PCT characteristics
Cuboidal epi
brush border
not a lot of nucleii apparent
no good lateral orders
Thick descending limb
no brush border
smaller cells
like PCT
thin limbs
sqamous epi
smaller diameter, but large lumen
Morphology of maculaa densa cells
Taller columnar
dense packed nucleii
darker staining
sensitive to ionic content, promotes liberation of renin from juxtoglomerular cells
renal interstitial cells
lipid driplets
secrete prostaglandins
which way do podocyte nuclei bulge?
into urinary space
Distinctive feature of ureter
loosely arranged SM around it
What are "thick plates"?
parts of thickened membrane (connected by thinner parts) in the superficial layer of epithelium of the bladder
How is the osmotic gradient set in the kidney?
1) everything small filters out in glomerulus
2) All glucose and AA, and 85% of the Na and HOH is resorbed in PCT. All but water are resorbed actively.
3) Henle's loop: In thick ascending limb, Na is actively transported out, but water is impermeable.
4) if CT becomes permeable to water, then water rushes out and is resorbed as well