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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
maintain the composition and volume of body fluids
-every 30min the total blood volume passes through the kidneys for waste removal.
-nephrons remove end products of metabolism from the blood plasma and form urine
smooth muscle sac
composed of 3 layers
at base of bladder, teh middle circular layer of the muscle tissue forms the internal or involuntary sphincter, which guards the opening btwn the urinary bladder adn the urethra.
convey urine from the bladder to the exterior.
act of micturition
process of emptying hte bladder.
nerve centers are situation in the brain and the spinal cord.
stretch receptors in teh bladder are stimulated as urine collects- internal sphincter relaxes, and urine enters the posterior urethra.
urinary incontinence
any involuntary loss of urine that causes a problem
urinary retention
urine is produced normally but is not excreted completely.
factors: medications, an enlarged prostate, or vaginal prolapse.
involuntary urination that occurs after an age when continence should be present
not seen as a problem until age 6.
effects of aging
-diminished ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine results in nocturia.
-decreased bladder muscle tone may reduce the capacity to hold urine, resulting in frequency of urination.
-decreased bladder contractility may lead to urin retention and stasis
-neuromuscular problems, degenerative joint problems, alterations in thought processes, and weakness may interfere with voluntary control
nephrotoxic drugs
capable of causing kidney damage. abuse of analgesics, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, some antibiotics...
commonly used in teh treatment of hypertension prevent the reabsorption of water and certain electrolytes in teh tubules.
may cause hematuria or a red colored urine
scanty or greatly diminished amount of urine in a given time
technically no urine voided: kidney failure
orthostatic albuminuria
presence of albumin in urine that is voided after periods of standing, walking, or running; phenomenon of the cirulatory system and not necessarily a symptom of kidney disorder
albumin the urine; indication of kidney disease
pus in the urine; urine appears cloudy
urinary diversions
the surgical creation of an alternate route for excretion of urine.
stress incontinence
involuntary loss related to an increasei n abdominal pressure during coughing, sneezing, laughing...
urge incontinence
associated with an abrupt and strong desire to void
overflow incontinence
involuntary loss of urine ass with overdistention and overflow of the bladder. signal may be underactive or absent, dribbling occurs.
functional incontinence
urine loss caused by factors outside the lower urinary tract. chronic impairments or physical or cognitive functioning.
transient incontinence
temporary reversible loss of bladder control.
indwelling urethral catheter
retention or foley catheters.
gradual decompression of an overdistended bladder, for intermittent bladder drainage/irrigation, and for continous bladder drainage.
intermittent catheter
straight catheters, are used to drain the bladder for shorter periods (5-10 min).
suprapubic catheter
continuous drainage. surgically inserted through small incision above the pubic area.
urologic stents
when a pt has a urinary tract ovstruction and isn't a candidate for surgery,. stent may be temporary or permanent. Urologic stents relieve urinary obstruction and provide a path for the flow of urine.
reasons for catheterization
-relieve urinary retention
-obtain a sterile urine specimen
-measure the postvoid residual PVR
-urine specimen
-emptying the bladder before, during, or after surgery
-monitoring of critically ill pts.