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9 Cards in this Set

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Drug class: Thiazide
Prototype: hydrochlorothiazide
Dynamics: acts in distal tubule to increase excretion of salt, potassium, H2O
Adverse: decreased gfr r/t fluid & electrolyte loss
Tx: HPT, edema
Note: monitor VS and DO NOT GIVE TO PT. W/ RENAL DISEASE!
Drug class: Loop
Prototype: Furosemide
Dynamics: acts in Loop of Henle to promote excretion of salt, potassium, & H2O
Adverse: fluid/electrolyte loss, esp. potassium
Tx: edema from CHF, pulmonary edema, hepatic & renal disease
Note: has a STRONG effect; monitor VS
Drug class: Potassium-sparing
Prototype: Triamterene
Dynamics: acts in distal tubule to promote salt and H2O excretion, but promotes reabsorption of potassium
Adverse: Major electrolyte imbalance; hyperkalemia in older adults
Tx: HPT, edema
Note: weakest diruetic when given alone; works synergistically when given w/ other diuretics
Drug class: Osmotic
Prototype: Mannitol
Dynamics: sugar that draws H2O into vascular space thru osmosis; filtered in kidney but not reabsorbed, hence diuresis
Adverse: serious fluid and electrolyte imbalance
Tx: acute renal failure, increased intercranial pressure
Note: crysallizes easily, warm drun in H2O before administering to dissolve crystals
Drug class: Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor
Prototype: Acetazolamide
Dynamics: Prevents formation of aqueous humor and decreases intraocular pressure
Adverse: ??
Tx: primarily in tx. of chronic, open-angle glaucoma
Note: ??
Anti-Infective/Sulfonamides
Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMZ-TMP)
Brand name: Bactrim
Dynamics: interferes w/ folic acid needed for biosynthesis of RDA & DNA
Adverse: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, crystalluria, Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Tx: UTI, respiratory infections, GI infections, and STD's
Note: give w/ food and increase fluid intake
Urinary tract antiseptics
Methenamine, Nitrofurantoin, quinolone
Brand name: Macrodantin, Macrobid
Dynamics: works by a local action in urinary tract; not a systemic medication
Adverse: nausea, vomiting, dark urine
Tx: UTI
Note: does not achieve high serum levels
Urinary analgesic
Phenazopyridine
Brand name: Pyridium
Treatment: usually w/ UTI
Note: may interfere with UA tests based on color reactions; this drug will turn the pt. urine ORANGE
Spasmolytics
tolterodine tartrate
Brand name: Detrol
Dynamics: inhibits bladder contraction
Tx: overactive bladder
Adverse: dry mouth, headache, dizziness
Note: Do not give to pt. w/ uncontrolled angle-closure glaucoma or pt. w/ urine retention