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20 Cards in this Set

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What would you chose to do an cystocentesis over catheterization?
to avoid contamination from the lower urinary tract and minimize changes of developing a urinary tract infection

do not do if there is local pyoderma, coaguopathy or neoplasia
What color tube top is used for urine collected from a cysto?
red tube
What is voided urine used for?
sediment and urinalysis
do not use for culture
After collection, how long can you wait to do a urinalysis?
30 minutes

refrigerate if you need extended time
What does light exposure do to urine color?
makes it darker yellow
What causes a red-brown color to urine?
Which does not accumulate in serum?
Which will discolor serum?
RBCs, Hb, Mb, meth Hb
Mb
Hb
What causes a yellow-orange discoloration of urine?
Yellow-brown, yellow-green?
Bilirubin
Bilirubin & biliverdin
Which elements of urine contribute to USG?
What do not?
What can cause a false increase in USG?
Dissolved ions and molecules
Cells, casts and crystals
Cold
What should you interpret the USG with?
1) BUN & Crt
2) Amount of urine
3) Hydration status
What are the normal USGs for dogs? Cats? Horses and cattle?
> 1.030
> 1.035
> 1.025
Does centrifugation clear blood from urine?
Hb?
What color will plasma be with Hb?
Will the patient be anemic?
Yes
No
Pink
Yes
What are the five causes of an alkaline pH?
1) UTI
2) Low protein diet
3) Respiratory alkalosis
4) Metabolic alkalosis
5) Alkalinizing drugs
What are the five causes of an acidic pH?
1) Carnivores, herbivores on milk, drugs
2) Acidosis
3) Hypokalemia
4) Furosimide
5) Hypochloremic metabolic aklalosis
What are the four causes of proteinuria?
1) Hemorrhage
2) Infection
3) Intravascular hemolysis
4) Renal dz
When you have proteinuria of renal dz, will it be blood positive or negative?
Do you see casts?
Negative
Yes
At what USG will RBCs be crenated? Under what USG will RBCs lyse? How many RBCs in normal in a HPF?
> 1.025
< 1.008
< 5
What test should you perform if you had a cat with yeast in their urine
FeLV & FIV
What type of crystalluria is present in acidic urine? In alkaline urine?
Uric acid, cystine, calcium oxalate, bilirubin, melamine
Struvite, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, ammonium biurate
What types of crystals are formed from ethylene glycol toxicity?
Calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate
What is an abnormal amount of hyaline casts?
What is a cause of these?
What type of casts are always of pathologic significance?
> 2/LPF
Proteinuria of renal dz or extra renal dz
Waxy -> chronic renal dz