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59 Cards in this Set

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Annexation (land to city)
legally adding land area to a US city
Barriadas
A slum, or junktown, snakes its way up a surrounding hill
Bid-rent theory
is a geographical theory that refers to how the price and demand on land changes as the distance towards the CBD (Central Business District) increases.
CBD
Central Business District the area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
Census tract
A Division of urban areas into segments that contain approximately 5000 residents and correspond where possible to neighborhood boundaries
Central place theory/Christaller, Walter
Place Theory is a geographical theory that seeks to explain the size and spacing of human settlements. It rests on the notion that centralization is a natural principle of order and that human settlements follow it. Created by the German geographer Walter Christaller, the theory suggests that there are laws determining the number, size and distribution of towns. He was interested only in their functions as markets, thus excluding specialist towns such as mining settlements. He argued that population alone couldn’t measure the significance of a town.
City – legal definition
defines an urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent self governing unit
Colonial city
when the colonizers expanded existing cities to provide colonial services such as admin. And trade and housing for Europeans.
Commerialization
The process of introducing a new product into the market; availible to be bought and sold
Concentric zone model of city
a city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric ring like the growth rings of a tree.
Consumer services (Retail, personal)
Retail services- to provide goods to sell to consumers. Ex. Wholesale, restaurants, shops. Personal services- to provide services for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers. Ex. Health care, education, hotels, church, beauty salons
Counterurbanization
net migration for urban to rural areas
Decentralization ERAS
is the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of service or action
Deindustrialization
is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.
Density gradient
density changes in an urban area, the number of houses per unit of land diminishes as distance from the center city increases
Early cities
pre colonial cities?
Economic base (basic/nonbasic of a settlement)
)- a communities unique collection of basic industries defines its economic base. Basic- export primarily to consumers outside the settlement. Non-basic- enterprises whose consumers live in the same community, essentially consumer services.
Edge city/peripheral model
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
Enclosure movement
the conversion of rural landscapes from clustered settlement to dispersed patterns to improve agriculture production.
Favela
A favela is the Brazilian equivalent of a shanty town, which are generally found on the edge of the city
Filtering
the process of subdivision of houses and occupancy by successive waves of lower income people
Gateway city
act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas
Gentrification
the process by which middle class people move into deteriorated inner city neighborhoods and renovate the housing
Ghetto
denotes a section of a city in which members of any minority group( not just jews) live because of social legal or economic pressure
Greenbelt
a ring of land maintained as parks agriculture or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Hinterland/market area
the area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted
Infrastructure
The basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society, such as transportation and communications systems, water and power lines, and public institutions including schools, post offices, and prisons.
Invasion/succession/filtering
invasion: a process through which a new activity or social group enters an area/ succession: a new use of social group gradually replaces the former occupant
Lateral commuting
suburban to suburban communting
Medieval cities
are extremely densely packed with narrow buildings and winding streets, contain an ornate church that prominently marks the city center, and are surrounded by high walls.
Megacities
usually defined as a recognized metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people
Megalopolis/Conurbation
a megalopolis or megacity is defined as an extensively large metropolitan area, or a conurbation, such as Tokyo, or long chain of continuous metropolitan areas.
Metropolitan area (functional city)
an urban area consisting of one or more county units, usually containing several urbanized areas, or suburbs, that all act together as a coherent economic whole
MSA/CMSA/PMSA
Metropolitan statistical area- in the US it is a central city of at least 50000 population, the county within which the city is located and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city/ Consolidated metropolitan statistical area- has a population of one million or more and also has separate component areas (PMSAs - primary metropolitan statistical areas) meeting statistical criteria and supported by local opinion./ Primary metropolitan statistical area- These individual areas are called Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas, while the metropolitan area containing these PMSAs is called a Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area. For example, Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas, are each classified as Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas, while the Dallas-Fort Worth area is a Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Multiple nuclei model of city
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
Neighborhood
is a geographically localized community located within a larger city, town or suburb.
Office/business park, industrial park,
retail park
An industrial park (or industrial estate in British English) is an area of land set aside for industrial development. Industrial parks are usually located close to transport facilities. A more "lightweight" version is the office park, which has offices and light industry, rather than heavy industry.
Primate city
a country’s leading city, with a population that is disproportionately greater than other urban areas
Public housing
housing that is managed by a housing authority established by the local government with the federal government paying the cost of construction maintenance repair and management not covered by rent .
Public services
to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses.
Racial steering
the act of steering prospective homebuyers to neighborhoods which have residents of mostly their same racial background
Rank-size rule
the countries nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest population.
Redlining
a bank drawing lines on a map to identify areas in which they will refuse to loan money
Restrictive covenants
are in effect a form of private planning control: they are restrictions on the development or use of land, enforceable by one landowner against another.
Sector model of city
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors or wedges radiating out from the CBD
Smart growth
legislation and regulation to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farm land
Social structure/area analysis
social scientists compare distribution of characteristics and create an overall picture of where various type of people tend to live
Squatter settlement
an area within a city in an LDC in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures
Suburb/Suburbanization
- residential communities, located outside of city centers, that are usually relatively homogenous within that city.
Threshold/range
second piece of geographic info needed to compute a market area. Number of people needed to support the service./ the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
Tenement
A rundown, low-rental apartment building whose facilities and maintenance barely meet minimum standards.
Town
A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. Generally, a "town" is thought of as larger than a village but smaller than a "city."
Underclass
inner city residents that are trapped in an unending cycle of economic and social problems
Urban heat island
is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surroundings.
Urban renewal
a program in which cities identify blighted inner city neighborhoods, aquire the properties from prior owners, relocate the residents, and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities and turn the land over to private developers.
Urban sprawl
the progressive spread of a city over the landscape
Urbanization
an increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements
World city
centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce
Zoning
the practice of designating permitted uses of land based on mapped zones which separate one part of a community from another