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56 Cards in this Set

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Ecology
the study of the relationships between organisms and the living and nonliving factorns in their environments
Population
group of organisms of the same species that live in one area during a species that live in one area.
community
the combination of all the populations living in a area and interacting with eachother
ecosystem
the living community AND its environment
abiotic factor
non living components
biotic factors
all the living organisms in an ecosystem
biosphere
the portion of the earth where life exists
What are the 2 conditions for an ecosystem to be self sustaining?
-relatively constant source of energy
-organic and inorganic nutrients need to be recycled (i.e. water and food)
producers- definiton plus scientific name
autotrophs
organism which can synthesize food from inorganic molecules
ex. plants
consumers
heterotrophs
organisms which cannot synthesize food on own
decomposers-scientific name + definition
saprophytes
organisms that act as decomposers by absorbing nutriens from dead organic matter
ex. mushrrom, fungi, bacteria
herbivores
only eat plants
carnivores- 2 types
predators and scavengers
predators
HUNT and KILL other animals for food
scavengers
SEARCH out dead or already dying organisms for food.
omnivores
eat both plants and animals
Food chain
involves the tranfer of energy from green plants through a series of organisms with repeated stages of eating and being eaten
FIrst trophic lever
producers and autotrophs
second trophic level
primary consumers, hetrotrophs
tertiary consumers
secondary consumers, hetertrophs
Fourth trophic level called....
quaternary level
No designated trophic level
decomposers, ant the end of food chain
food web
many interconnected food chains in an ecosystem
ecological pyramids
illustrate the realtionship between producers and consumers by indiacating the decrease in numbers, biomass or energy at each trophic level
What are the three pyramids
-pyramid of energy
-pyramid of biomass
-pyramid of number
10% rule
90% of energy is lost as heat as you move up each level of the pyramid
symbiont
refers to the smaller in a symbiotic relations ship
host
symbiont life of of it
symbuituc relationships
different types of organisms live together in a clse relationsships, symbiotic relationsships may or may not be beneficial to the orgasnisms involved
three types of symbiotic relationships
-commensalism
-mutualism
-parasitism
commensalism
symbiiont benefits
host doesn't benefit or is not harmed

shark + lamprey fish
mutualism
both symbiont and host benefit
parasitism
symbiont benerfits
host is harmed
3 gases involved in carbon cycle and how are the cycled
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen

respiration, photosynthesis
respiration
the carbon and hydrogen in glucose react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water
photosynthesis
h2o and co2 with the energy from the un are combined to form glucose and oxygen
water cycle is important to
all organisms
water cycle involves the following process
photosynthesis
precipitation
evaporaion
condensation
respiration
transpiration
the nitrgoen cycle
important for the production of protei, and essential building block in all living hthings
nitrogen cycle involoves
decomposer and other soil bacteria which break down and convert nitrogenous wastes and the remains of dead organisms into materails usable by autotrophs
types of biomes
terrestrial
aquatic
terrestrial means
land
land biomes are characterized....
by climax vegetation in the region

the major plant and animal associations on land are determined by the major climatic zones of the world
climates vary as to....
-precipitation
-light
-altitude (mountains, sea level)
-latitude (how far from equator)
-tmperature
Aquatic means
water
largest ecosystem on earth
aquatic
__ % or earth is covered by water
70
which is more stable? aquatic or terrestrial
aquatic
Factors that affect aquatic kinds and #'s or organisms in aquatic ecosystem
-dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide
-temperature
-light
primary succesion
-beings in virtually lifeless soil
-soil is not filled with nutrients, needed to cycle through self sustaining ecosystems
pioneer species in primary succesion
must be very simple organisms , live off few nutrients

modify the enviornment so more complex organisms can settle
secondary succession
occurs where an exsisting communit has been cleared by some disturbance (soil left intact)
pioneer species in secondary succession
more complex than in primary succession, complex organisms settle quickly
end of succession
climax community
climax community ends...
a catastrophe changes or alters it, otherwise continues
each biomeis a different
climax community