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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What does it mean if something is "efferent"?
It is conducting away from a certain body part.
What does it mean if something is "afferent"?
It is conducting towards a certain body part.
Is the autonomic nervous system involved with all the organs of the body?
No.
Are all systems which are affected by the autonomic nervous system under constant neural tone?
No.
Why is the autonomic nervous system important in pharmacology?
It is the target of many drugs (which is a good and a bad thing).
What are the 4 major effects of sympathetic stimulation?
Cardiac stimulation, bronchodilation, increase in blood flow to skeletal muscle, increase in plasma glucose and fats.
What are the 4 major effects of parasympathetic stimulation?
Cardiac slowing, gut stimulation, increase in secretions, bladder emptying.
What is a ganglion?
A cluster of cell bodies and dendrites that acts as a relay or intermediate point in the body.
What are some important areas for drug action?
Synapses (in brain, ganglia, or organs), presynaptic neurotransmitters, and post-synaptic receptors and affected organs.
What are the two primary neurotransmitters in the ANS?
Noradrenaline (NA) & acetylcholine (ACh).
What is the post-ganglionic transmitter for the parasympathetic nervous system?
Acetylcholine.
PNS nerves affected by acetylcholine are called...
...cholinergic.
Drugs that mimic the effects of acetylcholine are called...(2 answers).
...cholinomimetics or parasympathomimetics.
Drugs that impair the function of the PNS are called...
...parasympatholytics.
What is the post-ganglionic transmitter for the sympathetic nervous system?
Noradenaline.
Nerves that are affected by noradrenaline/norepinephrine are referred to as...
...adrenergic.
Drugs that mimic noradrenaline are called...
...sympathomimetics.
Drugs that impair the sympathetic nervous system are called...
...sympatholytics.
All ganglionic nerves are... (cholinergic or adrenergic?)
...cholinergic.
Receptors are targets for transmitters, and also for...
...hormones.
Are there many or few types of receptors?
Many.
What 2 characteristics are receptors classified according to?
Pharmacological criteria (affinity of drugs) and protein structure.
In the PNS, there are _______ receptors in the ganglia and ________ receptors post-ganglia.
nicotinic; muscarinic
Alpha-1 receptors are ___synaptic and have a ______ effect on the body.
post; excitatory
Alpha-2 receptors are ____synaptic and have what effect on noradrenaline?
pre; inhibitory
Beta-1 receptors act on _________ and have a _________ effect.
heart; stimulatory
Beta-2 receptors act on _________ and have a _________ effect.
smooth muscle; relaxing
What are some the factors that influence the response of effector tissues?
Intensity of neural input, stimulation by autacoids and hormones, pathophysiological state of tissue, presence of drugs.
How much sympathetic tone does the heart experience at rest?
None.
Vascular tone is regulated by what type of receptors?
Baroreceptors.
In the sympathetic response, bronchioles are dilated by what type of receptors?
Beta-2 adrenoceptors.
In the parasympathetic response, bronchioles are constricted by what type of receptors?
Muscarnic receptors.
What are the effects of Alpha-1 agonists?
Vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, reflex decrease in heart rate.
What are the effects of Beta-1 agonists?
Cardiac stimulation.
What are the effects of Beta-2 agonists?
Relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, especially during bronchoconstriction.
What are some effects/uses of Alpha-Adrenoceptor antagonists?
Vasodilation due to blocking of sympathetic tone, reflex increase in heart rate. Used to treat hypertension, for benign prostatic hypertrophy.
What are some side effects of Alpha-Adrenoceptor antagonists?
Sedation, nasal stuffiness, diarrhea, impaired ejaculation, postural hypotension.
What is the suffix used for Alpha-Adrenoceptor antagonists?
-azosin.
What is the suffix used for Beta-Adrenoceptor antagonists?
-olol.
What are the common actions of Beta-Adrenoceptor antagonists?
Decreased heart rate, especially during stress, decreased oxygen demand (anti-anginal), decreased cardiac dysrhythmias, decreased blood pressure, decreased reinfarction rate after MI, decreased congestive heart failure.
What effects do Beta-Adrenoceptor antagonists have on the lungs? How is this dangerous? How do we overcome this?
They prevent sympathetic-induced bronchodilation, which is very dangerous in asthmatics. Beta-1 selective antagonists cause less severe problems with this.
What are 2 classes of muscarinic receptor agonists?
Choline esters and alkaloids.
What do cholinesterase inhibitors do, and what are some examples?
They increase acetylcholine effects. They are used as therapeutic agents, insecticides, and war nerve gases.
What is the "classic" muscarinic antagonist?
Atropine.